Abstract

Abstract A newly developed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been applied to the monitoring of atomic mercury emissions at several chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The versatility of the system is illustrated by measured time series of mercury flux and movies of vertical and horizontal concentration distributions, which yield important input parameters for the environmental community. Long term measurements of the resonance absorption of mercury at 253.65 nm poses special demands, i.e. long term stability, on the light source that often have been hard to fulfill, in different respects, for standard OPO and dye laser based systems. Here, approaches to meet these demands are presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Wängberg, H. Edner, R. Ferrara, E. Lanzillotta, J. Munthe, J. Sommar, S. Svanberg, M. Sjöholm and P. Weibring, "Mercury emissions from a chlor-alkali plant in Sweden," Sci. Tot. Environ. 304, 29 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniqu (1)

S. Svanberg, "Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)," in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. Sigrist (ed) (Wiley, New York 1994).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys B (1)

G. Egret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, "Diod-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere," Appl. Phys B 67, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner and S. Svanberg, "Remote monitoring of idustrial emissions by combination of lidar and plume velocity measurements," Appl. Phys. B 66, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Lindström, U. Holst, P. Weibring, and H. Edner, "Analysis of LIDAR Measurements Using Nonparametric Kernel Regression Methods," Appl. Phys. B 74, 155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

W. H. Schroeder, J. Munthe, "Atmospheric mercury - an overview," Atmos. Environ. 32 No. 5, 809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E.G. Pacyna, J.M. Pacyna and N. Pirrone, "European emissions of atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in 1995," Atmos. Environ. 35, 2987 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Environmetrics (1)

U. Holst, O. Hössjer, C. Björklund, P. Ragnarsson and H. Edner, "Locally weighted least squares kernel regression and statistical evaluation of lidar measurements," Environmetrics 7, 401-416 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Reg. Environ. Change (1)

K. von Rein, L. D. Hylander, "Experiences from phasing out the use of mercury in Sweden," Reg. Environ. Change 1, 126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

P. Weibring, J. N. Smith, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, "Development of a frequency agile optical parametric oscillator system for differential absorption lidar," Rev. Sci. Instr. 74, 4478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Tot. Environ. (1)

I. Wängberg, H. Edner, R. Ferrara, E. Lanzillotta, J. Munthe, J. Sommar, S. Svanberg, M. Sjöholm and P. Weibring, "Mercury emissions from a chlor-alkali plant in Sweden," Sci. Tot. Environ. 304, 29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

<a href= "http://www.tekran.com/2505/2505fea.html">http://www.tekran.com/2505/2505fea.html</a>

<a href= "http://www.emecap.com">http://www.emecap.com</a>

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The mobile lidar system in a field campaign in Rosignano Solvay, Italy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic overview of the master oscillator (MO) and power oscillator (PO) transmitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(417 KB) Movie of horizontal concentration maps from the MCCA plant in Rosignano Solvay 2002-02-03, 12:11–12:38.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(611 KB) Movie of vertical concentration maps from the MCCA plant in Bohus 2002-01-18, 12:00–15:27.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(467 KB) Movie of vertical concentration maps from the MCCA plant in Rosignano Solvay 2002-02-04, 14:35–17:57.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Typical mercury fluxes from Bohus (left) and Rosignano Solvay (right), respectively.

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