Abstract

An ultra-high-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT) was developed for imaging the human retina and optic nerve in vivo at a sustained depth profile (A-line) acquisition speed of 29 kHz. The axial resolution was 6 µm in tissue and the system had shot-noise-limited performance with a maximum sensitivity of 98.4 dB. 3-dimensional data sets were collected in 11 and 13 seconds for the macula and optic nerve head respectively and are presented to demonstrate the potential clinical applications of SD-OCT in ophthalmology. Additionally, a 3-D volume of the optic nerve head was constructed from the acquired data and the retinal vascular network was visualized.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Archives of Ophthalmology

Drexler W, Sattmann H, Hermann B, Ko TH, Stur M, Unterhuber A, Scholda C, Findl O, Wirtitsch M, Fujimoto JG, Fercher AF., "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Archives of Ophthalmology 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler, M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Physiol.

F. W. Campbell, D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576�??593 (1965).

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp,S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, J. F. de Boer, "Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 782-793 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-782">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-782</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. Time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color doppler fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high speed spectral domain optical doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park,J. F. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 um wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 3598-3604 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang,J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Reports on Progress in Physics

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Reports on Progress in Physics 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

American National Standards Institute, American national standard for safe use of lasers z136.1 (American National Standards Institute, Orlando, 2000).

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (2066 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2018 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2530 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (8326 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (8885 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography setup. The components of the system are: high-powered superluminescent diode source (HP-SLD), polarization controllers (PC), slit-lamp (SL), neutral density filter (NDF), collimator (Col), transmission grating (TG), air-spaced focusing lens (ASL), linescan camera (LSC), eye (E).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Noise components in the detector. The shot noise level was determined with illumination of the reference arm only, and was used to determine the A/D resolution of the detector. The theoretical shot noise curve was fit using Eq. (4) to the measured noise, giving a Δe of 173 electrons and a corresponding well depth of 177,000 electrons.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The depth dependent loss in signal sensitivity from a weak reflector. The signal decayed 16.7 dB between 0 and 2 mm. The peaks at 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm, and 1.85 mm are fixed pattern noise.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decay of sensitivity across the measurement range. Symbols: Peak intensities of data presented in Fig 3. Solid line: Fit of Eq. (5) to the data points.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.0 MB) Movie of the fovea acquired at 29 fps with 1000 A-lines/frame. The movie sweeps over a length of 2.56 mm, with each frame consisting of an image 3.2 mm wide by 1 mm deep. Frame # 154 of 310 is shown above. The individual layers of the fovea are distinguishable and labeled: Nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL) outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), external limiting membrane (ELM), inner and outer segment of photoreceptors (IS/OS PR), outer nuclear layer (ONL), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choriocapilaris (CC). The scale bar represents 250 µm. (8.33 MB version)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(2.0 MB) Movie of a region around the optic nerve head, acquired in 13.1 seconds at a rate of 29 fps with 1000 A-lines/frame. Each image is 6.4 mm wide×1.7 mm deep. The sequence sweeps over a region 5.12 mm long, with frame # 134 of 380 shown above. The retinal vasculature is seen both in the layers of the retina and converging in the optic nerve head itself. The scale bar represents 500 µm. (8.89 MB version)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) (2.5 MB) 3-dimensional reconstruction of the retina from the images composing Fig. 6. The vascular network is visible as shadows in the retinal layers as seen in the en-face 3-D reconstruction. The RPE and NFL are the two prominent dark layers that appear in the volume. (b) Fundus photograph of the same retina used for OCT imaging. The bifurcation marked with dashed box corresponds to the bifurcation seen in the 3-D reconstruction. Orientation: S=superior, I=inferior, N=nasal, T=temporal.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( k ) = I r ( k ) + 2 I s ( k ) I r ( k ) n α n cos ( k z n ) + I s ( k )
F T 1 [ I ( k ) ] 2 = Γ 2 ( z ) { δ ( 0 ) + n α n 2 δ ( z z n ) + n α n 2 δ ( z + z n ) + O [ I s 2 I r 2 ] } ,
SNR SD = η P sample τ i E ν ,
σ 2 ( λ ) = I PV ( λ ) Δ e + σ r + d 2 .
R ( z ) = sin 2 ( π z 2 d ) ( π z 2 d ) 2 exp [ π 2 ω 2 8 ln 2 ( z d ) 2 ]

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