Abstract

We experimentally investigate transient effects of our proposed single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF under the situation of multi-channel add/drop, and then demonstrate the use of a FBG based all-optical gain-clamping technique to efficiently suppress the output transients. The results show that the proposed hybrid amplifier has a significantly long transient response time of ~2 ms compared to the previous reported value of the conventional separate pump, Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers due to both the low-pumping regime operation of 14XX nm pumped EDFA section and the additional pump transit time through the 12.6 km long dispersion compensating fiber to reach the EDF. However, using a simple gain-clamping method we obtain an almost, transient-free operation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics

D. Gurkan, M. I. Hayee, and A. E. Willner, �??Transient behavior of L-band and C-band EDFAs in an add/drop multiplexed 40-channel WDM network,�?? in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore USA, 2001), CThH5.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung, and M. J. Chu �??Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 906-908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, H. Chung, and S. B. Lee, �??Dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump for efficiency enhancement,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, no.1 (2005).

M. Tang, Y. D. Gong, and P. Shum, �??Dynamic properties of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier with FBG-based all-optical gain clamping techniques,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 768-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, P. Honzatko, and J. Radil, �??Channel addition-removal response in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 771-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

OFC 1992

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, �??Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium doped fiber amplifiers in saturation conditions,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (San Jose USA, 1992), ThA4.

OFC 2003

T. Amano, K. Okamoto, T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Shigematsu, �??Hybrid dispersion compensating Raman amplifier module employing highly nonlinear fiber,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Atlanta USA, 2003), WB3.

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configurations for (a) our proposed dispersion-compensating, Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier and (b) its modified version with all-optical gain-clamping based on a pair of uniform FBG’s. Inset: Optical spectrum of the FBG used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured net gain and noise figure characteristics of the Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier as a function of input signal power at a wavelength of 1550 nm for both cases i.e. without and with gain-clamping.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured spectral profiles of overall gain and noise figure at two different input signal power levels of -10 dBm and -20 dBm: (a) without gain-clamping and (b) with gain-clamping.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured transient responses of a -20 dBm surviving channel in an experimental simulation of adding and dropping an add/drop channel with a -13 dBm average power corresponding to the total power of 10 channels with a -20 dBm single channel power, for both cases i.e. with and without gain-clamping. (b) A close-up view of the transient response with gain-clamping.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured transient responses for (a) the Raman amplification section and (b) the EDFA section, separately. For the Raman section measurement, pump power: 500 mW, surviving channel power: -20 dBm, and add/drop channel power: -13 dBm. For the EDFA section measurement, pump power: 40 mW, surviving channel power: -13 dBm, and add/drop channel power: -10 dBm.

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