Abstract

An experimental study to address issues encountered in the determination of surface bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity of materials [3–5µm] region has been conducted in outdoors conditions. The measurement protocol included radiometric infrared camera acquisitions in both [3–5µm] (band-2) and [8-14µm] (band-3). The band-2 bi-directional reflectivity is obtained from a sequence of sunlit and shade measurements. Best results are found with measurements relative to a diffuse aluminum reflector. Direct inversion of band-2 radiometric signal is unstable. A multi-temporal method is introduced and the slope of the linear regression is the searched emisssivity. A detailed analysis is conducted to assess the impact of different sources of systematic errors. The proposed method is found to have a good potential with an estimated measurement error in the range of 2%.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.W. Salisbury and D.M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 µm atmospheric window”, Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. J.C. Price, “Land Surface Temperature Measurements from the Split Window Channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer”, J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D5), 7231–7237 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Becker, “The impact of spectral emissivity on the measurement of land surface temperature from a satellite”, Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 1509–1522 (1987)
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Wan and J. Dozier, “Land-Surface Temperature Measurement from Space : Physical Principles and Inverse Modelling”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 268–277 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Qin and A. Karnieli, “Progress in the remote sensing of land surface temperature and ground emissivity using NOAA-AVHRR data”, Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2367–2393 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. F.E. Nicodemus, “Reflectance Nomenclature and Directional Reflectance and Emissivity,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1474–1475 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.
  10. W.C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2216–2220 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

1999 (1)

Z. Qin and A. Karnieli, “Progress in the remote sensing of land surface temperature and ground emissivity using NOAA-AVHRR data”, Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2367–2393 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J.W. Salisbury and D.M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 µm atmospheric window”, Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Z. Wan and J. Dozier, “Land-Surface Temperature Measurement from Space : Physical Principles and Inverse Modelling”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 268–277 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

F. Becker, “The impact of spectral emissivity on the measurement of land surface temperature from a satellite”, Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 1509–1522 (1987)
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J.C. Price, “Land Surface Temperature Measurements from the Split Window Channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer”, J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D5), 7231–7237 (1984).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

Abreu, L.W.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Acharya, P.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Anderson, G.P.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Barillot, P.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Becker, F.

F. Becker, “The impact of spectral emissivity on the measurement of land surface temperature from a satellite”, Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 1509–1522 (1987)
[Crossref]

Berk, A.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Bernstein, L.S.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Briottet, X.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Calvet, J.C.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Chetwynd, J.H.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Clough, S.A.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Coret, L.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Cothern, J.S.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

D’Aria, D.M.

J.W. Salisbury and D.M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 µm atmospheric window”, Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[Crossref]

Demarez, V.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Dozier, J.

Z. Wan and J. Dozier, “Land-Surface Temperature Measurement from Space : Physical Principles and Inverse Modelling”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 268–277 (1989).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.Z.

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fritz, N.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Gabell, A.R.

S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gallery, W.O.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Gillespie, A.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

Green, A.A.

S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hook, S.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kahle, A.B.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

Karnieli, A.

Z. Qin and A. Karnieli, “Progress in the remote sensing of land surface temperature and ground emissivity using NOAA-AVHRR data”, Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2367–2393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kealy, P.S.

S. Hook, A.R. Gabell, A.A. Green, and P.S. Kealy, “A Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Emissivity Information from Thermal Infrared Data for Geologic Studies”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  42, (2), 123–135 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kerr, Y.H.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Kneizys, F.X.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Lavenu, F.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Lemaitre, F.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Malaplate, A.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Marty, G.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Matsunaga, T.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miesch, C.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Nerry, F.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Nicodemus, F.E.

Poutier, L.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Price, J.C.

J.C. Price, “Land Surface Temperature Measurements from the Split Window Channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer”, J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D5), 7231–7237 (1984).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin and A. Karnieli, “Progress in the remote sensing of land surface temperature and ground emissivity using NOAA-AVHRR data”, Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2367–2393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D.C.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Rokugawa, S.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L.S.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Salisbury, J.W.

J.W. Salisbury and D.M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 µm atmospheric window”, Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[Crossref]

Selby, J.E.A.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Serrot, G.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Shettle, E.P.

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

Snyder, W.C.

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

W.C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2216–2220 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoll, M.P.

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

Wan, Z.

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

W.C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2216–2220 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wan and J. Dozier, “Land-Surface Temperature Measurement from Space : Physical Principles and Inverse Modelling”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 268–277 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J.S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A.B. Kahle, “A Temperature and Emissivity Separation Algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Images”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Wan and J. Dozier, “Land-Surface Temperature Measurement from Space : Physical Principles and Inverse Modelling”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 268–277 (1989).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

Z. Qin and A. Karnieli, “Progress in the remote sensing of land surface temperature and ground emissivity using NOAA-AVHRR data”, Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2367–2393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

F. Becker, “The impact of spectral emissivity on the measurement of land surface temperature from a satellite”, Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 1509–1522 (1987)
[Crossref]

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J.C. Price, “Land Surface Temperature Measurements from the Split Window Channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer”, J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D5), 7231–7237 (1984).
[Crossref]

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J.W. Salisbury and D.M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 3–5 µm atmospheric window”, Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 345–361 (1994).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

W.C. Snyder, Z. Wan, Y. Zhang, and Y.Z. Feng, “Thermal Infrared (3–14 µm) Bidirectional Reflectance measurements of Sands and Soils”, Remote Sens. Environ.,  60, 101–109 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F.X. Kneizys, L.W. Abreu, G.P. Anderson, J.H. Chetwynd, E.P. Shettle, A. Berk, L.S. Bernstein, D.C. Robertson, P. Acharya, L.S. Rothman, J.E.A. Selby, W.O. Gallery, and S.A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and Lowtran 7 MODEL” Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, PL/GPOS, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731–3010 (1996).

L. Poutier, X. Briottet, G. Serrot, C. Miesch, L. Coret, A. Malaplate, F. Lemaitre, V. Demarez, Y.H. Kerr, G. Marty, F. Lavenu, J.C. Calvet, N. Fritz, M.P. Stoll, F. Nerry, and P. Barillot, “PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry,” Proceedings of OPTRO 2002, Paris, January 2002.

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Figures (7)

Fig 1.
Fig 1.

Photo of artificial scene and identification of component materials

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Band 2 spectral signatures of material: left: natural materials; right: artificial material

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diurnal variation of the Fontainebleau sand: comparison between band 3 camera corrected for air layer and emissivity and ground band 3 radiometer corrected for emissivity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Target dependent spectrally average solar irradiance 〈E sun,2 (θs )〉target for two cases: concrete and Fontainebleau sand; (b) 〈E sun,2 (θs )〉target/〈E sun,2 (θs )〉ref for the different targets

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Retrieved bi-directional reflectivity of the different scene elements as a function of sun zenith angle

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Relative and absolute hemispherical reflectivity vs. laboratory measurements via integrating sphere

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Multi-temporal regression method: examples for three different targets. Sunlit and shadow data for June 26, 2000. The slope of the straight line is the laboratory emissivity.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Materials composing the scene

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Table 2. Technical characteristics of the two cameras

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Table 3. Impact of accounting for diurnal variation of atmospheric profile, sunlit data of June 26, 2000. Column 3: regression slope corrected for diurnal variation; column 4: regression slope without diurnal variation (same profile for whole day).

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Table 4. Summary of MRT method (data of June 26th & 27th): comparison of MRT slope with laboratory measured emissivity

Equations (21)

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L λ t arg et ( θ ) = ε λ ( θ ) L λ 0 ( T S ) + ρ b , λ ( θ , φ ; θ , φ ) L λ atm ( θ ) cos ( θ ) +
+ ρ b , λ ( θ , φ ; θ s , φ s ) E sun , λ ( θ s )
ε λ ( θ ) = 1 ρ h , λ ( θ ) = 1 2 π sr ρ b , λ ( θ , θ ; φ φ ) cos θ d ω
L λ t arg et ( θ ) = ε λ ( θ ) L λ 0 ( T s ) + [ 1 ε λ ( θ ) ] L λ atm ( θ ) + [ 1 ε λ ( θ ) ] F λ t arg et ( θ s , θ ) ( 1 π ) E sun , λ ( θ s )
L λ sensor ( θ ) = L λ t arget ( θ ) τ λ atm ( θ ) + L λ atm ( θ )
[ L λ sensor ( θ ) ] sunlit [ L λ sensor ( θ ) ] shade = ρ b , λ ( θ s , θ ) E sun , λ ( θ s )
ε λ ( θ ) = { ( F λ sensor ( θ ) L λ atm ( θ ) ) τ λ atm ( θ ) L λ atm F λ t arg et ( θ s , θ ) L sun , λ ( θ s ) } { L λ 0 ( T s ) L λ atm F λ t arg et ( θ s , θ ) L sun , λ ( θ s ) }
L i sensor ( θ ) = i L λ sensor ( θ ) f i ( λ ) d λ
= i ε λ ( θ ) L λ 0 ( T s ) f i ( λ ) τ λ ( θ ) d λ + i f i ( λ ) τ λ ( θ ) 2 π sr ρ b , λ ( θ , θ ) L λ atm ( θ ) cos θ d ω d λ
+ i ρ b , λ ( θ s , θ ) E sun , λ ( θ s ) f i ( λ ) τ λ ( θ ) d λ + i L λ atm ( θ ) f i ( λ ) d λ
X i = i X λ f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ f ̅ i ( λ ) = f i ( λ ) i f i ( λ ) d λ
ε i = i ε λ f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ ; ρ b , i ( θ s , θ ) = i ρ b , λ ( θ s , θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ ; ρ h , i ( θ ) = i ρ h , λ ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ
L i sensor ( θ ) i f i ( λ ) d λ = ε i ( θ ) i ε λ ( θ ) L λ 0 ( T s ) τ λ atm ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ i ε λ ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ
+ [ 1 ε i ( θ ) ] i ρ h , λ ( θ ) L λ τ λ atm ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ i ρ h , λ ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ
+ ρ b , i ( θ s , θ ) i ρ h , λ ( θ s , θ ) F λ ( θ s , θ ) L sun , λ ( θ s ) τ λ atm ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ i ρ p , λ ( θ s , θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ
+ i L λ atm ( θ ) f ̅ i ( λ ) d λ
L i , λ c ( T bi ) sensor ( θ ) = ε i ( θ ) L i , λ c ( T s ) + [ 1 ε i ( θ ) ] L i + ρ b , i ( θ s , θ ) E sun , i ( θ s ) L i atm ( θ )
[ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] sunlit [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] shade = ρ b , 2 ( θ s , θ ) E sun , 2 ( θ s )
ρ b , 2 t arg et ( θ s , θ ) = ρ b , 2 ref ( θ s , θ ) [ { [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] sunlit [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] shad } t arg et { [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] sunlit [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) ] shad } ref ] [ E sun , 2 ( θ s ) ref E sun , 2 ( θ s ) t arg et ]
ε 2 ( θ ) = { [ L 2 , λ c sensor ( θ ) L 2 atm ( θ ) ] L 2 atm F t arg et ( θ s , θ ) L sun , 2 ( θ s ) } { L λ c 0 ( T s ) L 2 atm F t arg et ( θ s , θ ) L sun , 2 ( θ s ) }
Δ ε ε 1 T 2 + 1 T e T 2 Δ T 2 + 1 T e T s Δ T s + ( 1 ε ) 1 T e T 2 + n 1 T 2 Δ T e

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