Abstract

We report on the trapping, rotation, and in-situ growth of birefringent tetragonal lysozyme crystals in optical tweezers operating at a wavelength of 1070 nm. Variation of the pH and lysozyme concentration of the solution during growth was used to alter the length to width ratio of the crystals, and hence their orientation in the tweezers. Crystals with the optical axis skewed or perpendicular to the trapping-beam axis could be rotated by changing the orientation of linearly polarized light. We observed spontaneous spinning of some asymmetric crystals in the presence of linearly polarized light, due to radiation pressure effects. Addition of protein to the solution in the tweezers permitted real-time observation of crystal growth.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser-radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081–1088 (1980)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43, 241–258 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  4. R. C. Gauthier, “Theoretical investigation of the optical trapping force and torque on cylindrical objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 3323–3333 (1997)
    [Crossref]
  5. R. C. Gauthier, M. Ashman, and C. P. Grover, “Experimental confirmation of the optical-trapping properties of cylindrical objects,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4861–4869 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  6. A. T. O’Neil and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational control within optical tweezers by the use of a rotating aperture,” Opt. Lett. 27, 743–745 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  7. S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light”, Optics Express 11, 446–451 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)
  10. E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
    [Crossref]
  11. M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  12. E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  13. A. LaPorta and M. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: angular trapping, rotation and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, Art. No. 190801 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  14. E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 34, 3104–3108 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)
  17. K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  18. W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  19. P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
    [Crossref]
  20. A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  21. N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  22. E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light”, Optics Express 11, 446–451 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

R. C. Gauthier, M. Ashman, and C. P. Grover, “Experimental confirmation of the optical-trapping properties of cylindrical objects,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4861–4869 (1999)
[Crossref]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
[Crossref]

P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
[Crossref]

E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. C. Gauthier, “Theoretical investigation of the optical trapping force and torque on cylindrical objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 3323–3333 (1997)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

1995 (1)

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 34, 3104–3108 (1995)
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser-radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081–1088 (1980)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asahi, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Asai, H.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Asami, H.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser-radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081–1088 (1980)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashman, M.

Bancel, P. A.

P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
[Crossref]

Bishop, A. I.

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

Blow, D. M.

N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
[Crossref]

Cajipe, V. B.

P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
[Crossref]

Chayen, N.E.

N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
[Crossref]

Forsythe, E.L.

E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
[Crossref]

Fredericks, W.J.

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

Friese, M.E.

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light”, Optics Express 11, 446–451 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, R. C.

R. C. Gauthier, M. Ashman, and C. P. Grover, “Experimental confirmation of the optical-trapping properties of cylindrical objects,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4861–4869 (1999)
[Crossref]

R. C. Gauthier, “Theoretical investigation of the optical trapping force and torque on cylindrical objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 3323–3333 (1997)
[Crossref]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grover, C. P.

Hammonds, M.C.

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N. R.

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
[Crossref]

Higurashi, E.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
[Crossref]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
[Crossref]

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

Homma, T.

K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
[Crossref]

Howard, S.B.

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

Ito, T

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
[Crossref]

Ito, T.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
[Crossref]

Kagomiya, I.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Kobayashi, J.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

LaPorta, A.

A. LaPorta and M. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: angular trapping, rotation and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, Art. No. 190801 (2004)
[Crossref]

Molloy, J. E.

J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43, 241–258 (2002)
[Crossref]

Nadarajah, A.

E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
[Crossref]

Nakazato, K.

K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
[Crossref]

Niemenen, T.A.

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

Nieminen, T. A.

S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
[Crossref]

O’Neil, A. T.

Ohguchi, O.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light”, Optics Express 11, 446–451 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Parkin, S. J.

S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
[Crossref]

Pusey, M. L.

E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
[Crossref]

Radcliffe, J. W.

N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
[Crossref]

Rodier, F.

P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
[Crossref]

Rosenberger, F.

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

Rosin, A.

T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
[Crossref]

Sakurai, M.

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Sawada, R.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
[Crossref]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
[Crossref]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

Tanaka, H.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

Tomo, T.

K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
[Crossref]

Ukita, H.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

A. LaPorta and M. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: angular trapping, rotation and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, Art. No. 190801 (2004)
[Crossref]

Wohland, T.

T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

Yamaguchi, I.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 34, 3104–3108 (1995)
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, A.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 34, 3104–3108 (1995)
[Crossref]

Acta Cryst. (1)

J. Kobayashi, T. Asahi, M. Sakurai, I. Kagomiya, H. Asai, and H. Asami, “The optical activity of lysozyme crystals,” Acta Cryst. A54, 581–590 (1998)

Acta Crystal. D (1)

E.L. Forsythe, A. Nadarajah, and M. L. Pusey, “Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends,” Acta Crystal. D 55, 1005–1011, (1999)
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, H. Tanaka, and O. Ohguchi, “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994)
[Crossref]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

J. E. Molloy and M. J. Padgett, “Lights, action: optical tweezers,” Contemp. Phys. 43, 241–258 (2002)
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. A. Bancel, V. B. Cajipe, and F. Rodier, “Manipulating crystals with light,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 685–690, (1999)
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 140–145(2001)
[Crossref]

J. of Cryst. Growth (1)

W.J. Fredericks, M.C. Hammonds, S.B. Howard, and F. Rosenberger “Density, thermal expansivity, viscosity and refractive index of lysozyme solutions at crystal growth concentrations,” J. of Cryst. Growth 141, 183–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

R. C. Gauthier, “Theoretical investigation of the optical trapping force and torque on cylindrical objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 3323–3333 (1997)
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Rad.. (1)

K. Nakazato, T. Homma, and T. Tomo “Rapid solubility measurement of protein crystals as a function of precipitant concentration with micro-dialysis cell and two-beam interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.. 11, 34–37 (2004)
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 34, 3104–3108 (1995)
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M.E. Friese, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348–350 (1998)
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Express (1)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light”, Optics Express 11, 446–451 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optik (1)

T. Wohland, A. Rosin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Theoretical determination of the influence of the polarization on forces exerted by optical tweezers,” Optik 102, 181–190 (1996)

Phys Rev. A (1)

A. I. Bishop, T.A. Niemenen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical applications and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic non-absorbing material,” Phys Rev. A 68, 033802 (2003)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito “Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 3676–3681 (1999)
[Crossref]

Prot. Sci. (1)

N.E. Chayen, J. W. Radcliffe, and D. M. Blow, “Control Of Nucleation In The Crystallization Of Lysozyme,” Prot. Sci. 2, 113–118 (1993)
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser-radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081–1088 (1980)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical measurement of torque exerted on an elongated object by a noncircular laser beam,” Phys. Rev.A70, Art. No. 023816 (2004)
[Crossref]

A. LaPorta and M. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: angular trapping, rotation and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, Art. No. 190801 (2004)
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (713 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (554 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Morphology of tetragonal lysozyme, showing crystallographic axes and faces. The optical axis coincides with the c-axis. The aspect ratio is defined as l:w.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optical tweezers setup used for trapping and imaging lysozyme crystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of lysozyme crystals (pH 7.0, 1:20 protein:salt solution) taken in the tweezers setup under a) crossed polarizers and b) linearly polarized light. The polarizer axes are aligned with the image edges.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and calculated values of the momentum transfer vs. angle for several crystals (solid line is for Δn=1.66×10-3). Each symbol represents a distinct crystal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Movie of autorotation of a compound lysozyme crystal in a linearly polarized trapping beam. Rotation continued for ~10 minutes before slowing and stopping. (730 kB)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Growth of lysozyme seed (from pH 7, 1:4 protein:salt solution) in the tweezers after addition of protein concentrate. Total elapsed time is 1 minute 12 seconds. (567 kB movie)

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