Abstract

Polarized images generated by the scattering near-field scanning optical microscopic interferometer were numerically studied by modeling the interferometer as a coupled point-dipole system. It was shown that, for a given specimen, the resolution of the near-field intensity and phase images were strongly dependent on both the polarization-direction of the reference light and the position of the far-field detector, revealing the strong polarization dependence of the near-field images. In the case of evanescent illumination, highly accurate images could be realized only when the detector was placed at a large enough view angle with the specimen and the reference light was polarized in the detecting-plane, which is vertical to the sample plane and contains both the detection point and the probe-tip.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 239–243 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy: Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Modern Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2001 (4)

2000 (3)

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328,(2000).
[Crossref]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy: Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Modern Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Carminati, “Phase properties of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 4091–4094 (1997)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramsinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, “Phase properties of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 4091–4094 (1997)
[Crossref]

Cline, J. A.

Friberg, Ari T.

Gallagher, A.

H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
[Crossref]

Hamann,, H. F.

H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 239–243 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isaason, M.

Kaivola, Matti

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 239–243 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328,(2000).
[Crossref]

Keller, O.

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
[Crossref]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328,(2000).
[Crossref]

Nesbitt, D. J.

H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
[Crossref]

Nesci, Antonello

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramsinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Peter Herzig, Hans

Phillips, P. L.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pottage, J. M.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
[Crossref]

RenéDändliker,

Setälä, Tero

Wickramsinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramsinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, “Theoretical treatment for scattering near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2977–2984 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy: Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Modern Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramsinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, and O. Keller, “Numerical study of configurational resonances in near-field optical microscopy with a mesoscopic metallic probe,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 115–121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 239–243 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. F. Hamann,, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Enhanced sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscopy as high resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73,1469–1471 (1998)
[Crossref]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramsinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, and J. M. Pottage, “Direct measurement of optical phase in the near field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541–543 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Modern Opt. (1)

M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy: Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Modern Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328,(2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Carminati, “Phase properties of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 4091–4094 (1997)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the s-SNOM interferometer (a) and the simulation model (b)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) distribution of the surface-spheres. (b) The topography of the spheres. (c) geometric relation between the probe and the surface spheres

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarized images obtained by a detector with angles of (85°, 90°, 5°)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarized images obtained by a detector at view angle of (65°, 90°, 35°)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polarized images obtianed by a detector at view angle of (35°, 90°, 65°)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ploarized images obtianed by a detector at view angle of (5°, 90°, 85°)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Images obtianed by a detector at view angle of (45°, 45°, 85°)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Three-dimensional display of Fig. 6(b) and Fig. 6(f)

Equations (5)

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E ( r j , ω ) = E 0 ( r j , ω ) i μ 0 ω i = 1 N [ G ( r j , r i , ω ) · α i ( ω ) ] · E ( r i , ω ) ,
α sur ( ω ) = i α ( ω ) [ [ 1 α ( ω ) r p ( ω ) 4 π ε 0 ( 2 δ ) 3 ] 1 0 0 0 [ 1 α ( ω ) r p ( ω ) 4 π ε 0 ( 2 δ ) 3 ] 1 0 0 0 [ 1 α ( ω ) r p ( ω ) 2 π ε 0 ( 2 δ ) 3 ] 1 ]
ξ = ξ 0 + · ξ ,
ξ = ( U ) 1 · ξ 0 ,
( E x ( r , ω ) E y ( r , ω ) E z ( r , ω ) ) = u 0 ω 2 j = 1 N α j ( ω ) · G ( r , r j , ω ) · ( E x ( r j , ω ) E y ( r j , ω ) E z ( r j , ω ) )

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