Abstract

In this paper, we introduce the principle and demonstrate the feasibility of a tunable multiple-cavity solid-spaced bandpass filter for WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) applications, which uses a vernier effect since the two cavities have different thermal sensitivities. A set of specific wavelengths can be addressed in the whole C-Band by using temperature changes less than 100°C. This result corresponds to a gain factor in sensitivity about 5 with respect to alternative standard thin-film configurations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Cascaded solid-spaced filters for DWDM applications,” in Advances in Optical Thin-Films,C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H.A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 384–392 (2003).
  3. J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Solid-spaced filters: an alternative for narrow bandpass applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson (2004).
  4. J.A. Dobrowolski, “Mica interference filters with transmission bands of very narrow half-widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 794–806 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  5. R.R. Austin, “The use of solid etalon devices as narrowband interference filters,” Opt. Eng. 11, 68–69 (1972).
  6. M. Candille and J.M. Saurel, “Réalisation de filtres double onde à bandes passantes très étroites sur supports en matière plastique (mylar),” Opt. Acta 21, 947–962 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  7. S.D. Smith and C.R. Pidgeon, “Application of multiple beam interferometric methods to the study of CO2 emission at 15 µm,” mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série 9, 336–349 (1963).
  8. A.E. Roche and A.M. Title, “Tilt tunable ultra narrow-band filters for high resolution photometry,” Appl. Opt. 14, 765–770 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).
  10. L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuck, and E. Ma, “Tunable and Switchable Multiple-Cavity Thin Film Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 126–135 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).
  12. W. Gunning, “Double-cavity electrooptic Fabry-Perot tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3129–3131 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Lequime, R. Parmentier, F. Lemarchand, and C. Amra, “Towards tunable thin film filters for WDM applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3277–3284 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).
  15. J. Haisma, B. Spierings, U. Bierman, and A. Van Gorkum, “Diversity and feasibility of direct bonding: a survey of a dedicated optical technology,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1154–1169 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Plössl and G. Kraüter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mat. Sci. and Eng. R25, 1–88 (1999).
  17. J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime are preparing a manuscript to be called “High accuracy measurement of the residual air gap thickness of thin-film and solid-spaced filters assembled by optical contacting.”

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Plössl and G. Kraüter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mat. Sci. and Eng. R25, 1–88 (1999).

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

W. Gunning, “Double-cavity electrooptic Fabry-Perot tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3129–3131 (1982).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

A.E. Roche and A.M. Title, “Tilt tunable ultra narrow-band filters for high resolution photometry,” Appl. Opt. 14, 765–770 (1974).
[Crossref]

M. Candille and J.M. Saurel, “Réalisation de filtres double onde à bandes passantes très étroites sur supports en matière plastique (mylar),” Opt. Acta 21, 947–962 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R.R. Austin, “The use of solid etalon devices as narrowband interference filters,” Opt. Eng. 11, 68–69 (1972).

1963 (1)

S.D. Smith and C.R. Pidgeon, “Application of multiple beam interferometric methods to the study of CO2 emission at 15 µm,” mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série 9, 336–349 (1963).

1959 (1)

Amra, C.

Austin, R.R.

R.R. Austin, “The use of solid etalon devices as narrowband interference filters,” Opt. Eng. 11, 68–69 (1972).

Bass, M.

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).

Bierman, U.

Candille, M.

M. Candille and J.M. Saurel, “Réalisation de filtres double onde à bandes passantes très étroites sur supports en matière plastique (mylar),” Opt. Acta 21, 947–962 (1974).
[Crossref]

Dobrowolski, J.A.

Domash, L.

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuck, and E. Ma, “Tunable and Switchable Multiple-Cavity Thin Film Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 126–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

Floriot, J.

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Cascaded solid-spaced filters for DWDM applications,” in Advances in Optical Thin-Films,C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H.A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 384–392 (2003).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Solid-spaced filters: an alternative for narrow bandpass applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson (2004).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime are preparing a manuscript to be called “High accuracy measurement of the residual air gap thickness of thin-film and solid-spaced filters assembled by optical contacting.”

Gunning, W.

W. Gunning, “Double-cavity electrooptic Fabry-Perot tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3129–3131 (1982).
[Crossref]

Haisma, J.

Kraüter, G.

A. Plössl and G. Kraüter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mat. Sci. and Eng. R25, 1–88 (1999).

Lemarchand, F.

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Lequime, R. Parmentier, F. Lemarchand, and C. Amra, “Towards tunable thin film filters for WDM applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3277–3284 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Cascaded solid-spaced filters for DWDM applications,” in Advances in Optical Thin-Films,C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H.A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 384–392 (2003).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Solid-spaced filters: an alternative for narrow bandpass applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson (2004).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime are preparing a manuscript to be called “High accuracy measurement of the residual air gap thickness of thin-film and solid-spaced filters assembled by optical contacting.”

Lequime, M.

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Lequime, R. Parmentier, F. Lemarchand, and C. Amra, “Towards tunable thin film filters for WDM applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3277–3284 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Cascaded solid-spaced filters for DWDM applications,” in Advances in Optical Thin-Films,C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H.A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 384–392 (2003).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Solid-spaced filters: an alternative for narrow bandpass applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson (2004).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime are preparing a manuscript to be called “High accuracy measurement of the residual air gap thickness of thin-film and solid-spaced filters assembled by optical contacting.”

Ma, E.

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuck, and E. Ma, “Tunable and Switchable Multiple-Cavity Thin Film Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 126–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

Murano, R.

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).

Nemchuck, N.

Nemchuk, N.

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

Parmentier, R.

Payne, A.

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

Pidgeon, C.R.

S.D. Smith and C.R. Pidgeon, “Application of multiple beam interferometric methods to the study of CO2 emission at 15 µm,” mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série 9, 336–349 (1963).

Plössl, A.

A. Plössl and G. Kraüter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mat. Sci. and Eng. R25, 1–88 (1999).

Roche, A.E.

Saurel, J.M.

M. Candille and J.M. Saurel, “Réalisation de filtres double onde à bandes passantes très étroites sur supports en matière plastique (mylar),” Opt. Acta 21, 947–962 (1974).
[Crossref]

Smith, S.D.

S.D. Smith and C.R. Pidgeon, “Application of multiple beam interferometric methods to the study of CO2 emission at 15 µm,” mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série 9, 336–349 (1963).

Spierings, B.

Title, A.M.

Van Gorkum, A.

van Stryland, E.

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).

Williams, D.

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).

Wolfe, W.

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).

Wu, M.

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuck, and E. Ma, “Tunable and Switchable Multiple-Cavity Thin Film Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 126–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mat. Sci. and Eng. (1)

A. Plössl and G. Kraüter, “Wafer direct bonding: tailoring adhesion between brittle materials,” Mat. Sci. and Eng. R25, 1–88 (1999).

mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série (1)

S.D. Smith and C.R. Pidgeon, “Application of multiple beam interferometric methods to the study of CO2 emission at 15 µm,” mém. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 5è série 9, 336–349 (1963).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Candille and J.M. Saurel, “Réalisation de filtres double onde à bandes passantes très étroites sur supports en matière plastique (mylar),” Opt. Acta 21, 947–962 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Double coherent solid-spaced filters for very narrow-bandpass filtering applications,” Opt. Commun. 222, 101–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R.R. Austin, “The use of solid etalon devices as narrowband interference filters,” Opt. Eng. 11, 68–69 (1972).

Other (6)

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Cascaded solid-spaced filters for DWDM applications,” in Advances in Optical Thin-Films,C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H.A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 384–392 (2003).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Solid-spaced filters: an alternative for narrow bandpass applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson (2004).

L. Domash, E. Ma, N. Nemchuk, A. Payne, and M. Wu, “Tunable thin-film filters based on thermo-optic semiconductor films,” in Applications of Photonic Technology V, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schinn, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 685–695 (2002).

J. Floriot, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime are preparing a manuscript to be called “High accuracy measurement of the residual air gap thickness of thin-film and solid-spaced filters assembled by optical contacting.”

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, and R. Murano, “Switchable thin film add/drop filter,” presented at the Optical Fiber Conf., Optical Soc. America, Atlanta, GA (2003).

M. Bass, E. van Stryland, D. Williams, and W. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2nd edition, 1994).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: GIF (1679 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (583 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(1.63 MB) Movie of the thermal dependence of both filter transmission (black: silica; red: silicon).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical transmission of the double-cavity filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical transmission of the double-cavity filter between 1520 and 1570nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental transmission of both filters at 25°C (black: silica filter; red: silicon filter).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental transmission of the double-cavity filter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(582 KB) Movie of the successive experimental coincidences for the double-cavity filter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Eight-channel tunability (black: initial coincidence; red: final coincidence).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Sixteen-channel tunability (black: initial coincidence; red: final coincidence).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Theoretical coincidences and related sensitivities

Tables Icon

Table 2: Experimental coincidences and related sensitivities

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ λ 0 = κ Δ ( nd ) nd where κ = 1 1 λ 0 2 k π · φ λ
λ 0 = 2 n 1 ( λ 0 ) d 1 k 0 = 2 n 2 ( λ 0 ) d 2 m 0
λ k = 2 n 1 ( λ k ) d 1 k 0 + k and λ m = 2 n 2 ( λ m ) d 2 m 0 + m
λ k T = λ k [ 1 + β 1 Δ T ] and λ m T = λ m [ 1 + β 2 Δ T ]
Δ T = 1 β 1 [ { n 1 ( λ 0 ) λ p n 1 ( λ k ) λ 0 1 } + k λ p 2 n 1 ( λ k ) d 1 ]
n 1 ( λ k ) = n 1 ( λ 0 ) + ( λ k λ 0 ) n 1 λ
Δ T = 1 β 1 [ k k 0 λ 0 { λ p + λ 0 2 n 1 ( λ 0 ) n 1 λ } + λ p λ 0 1 ]

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