Abstract

Conducting optical coatings for the visible light range are commonly made of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), but ITO is unsuitable for nearinfrared telecommunications wavelengths because it can become absorptive after extended illumination. In this paper we show an alternative approach which uses conventional coating materials to create either non-conducting or conducting antireflection (AR) coatings that are effective over a fairly broad spectral region (λ long/λ short≈1.40) and also usable for a wide range of angles of incidence (0–38°, or 0–55°) in the telecom wavelength range. Not only is the transmittance of windows treated with such coatings quite high, but they can be made to have extreme polarization independence (low polarization dependent loss values). A number of such coating designs are presented in the paper. A prototype of one of the conducting AR coating designs was fabricated and the measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement with the calculated performance. Such AR coatings should be of interest for telecommunication applications and especially for anti-static hermetic packaging of MEMS devices such as optical switches.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D.T. Neilson, R. Frahm, P. Kolodner, R.R. Bolle, C. , J. Kim, A. Papazian, C. Nuzman, A. Gasparyan, N. Basavanhally, V. Aksyuk and J. Gates, "256x256 Port Optical Cross-Connect Subsystem," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 22, 1499-1509 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. R. Wang and C.C. Lee, "Design of antireflection coating using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film prepared by Ion Assisted Deposition (IAD)," in Proc. of the 42nd Ann. Tech. Conf., Chicago, I1, Society of Vacuum Coaters (1999).
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Appl. Opt.

Applied Surface Science

W.F. Wu and B.S. Chiou, "Effect of annealing on electrical and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films," Applied Surface Science 68, 497-504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ergebnisse der Hochvakuumtechnik

A. Thelen and H. König, "Zur Entspiegelung von elektrisch leitender Glasoberflächen," in Ergebnisse der Hochvakuumtechnik und Physik dünner Schichten 1, (ed. M. Auwärter) (Wissenschafliche Verlagsgesellschaft MBH, Stuttgart, 1957), pp. 237-240.

IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology

D.T. Neilson, R. Frahm, P. Kolodner, R.R. Bolle, C. , J. Kim, A. Papazian, C. Nuzman, A. Gasparyan, N. Basavanhally, V. Aksyuk and J. Gates, "256x256 Port Optical Cross-Connect Subsystem," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 22, 1499-1509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.E. Ford, V.A. Aksyuk, D.J. Bishop and J.A. Walker, "Wavelength add/drop switching using tilting micromirrors.," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 17, 904-911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Society of Vacuum Coaters

R.E. Laird, J.D. Wolfe and C.K. Carniglia, "Durable conductive anti-reflection coatings for glass and plastic substrates," in Proc. of the 39th Ann. Tech. Conf., Philadelphia, PA, Society of Vacuum Coaters (1996).

J. Strumpfel, G. Beister, D. Schulze, M. Kammer and S. Rehn, "Reactive dual magnetron sputtering of oxides for large area production of optical multilayers," in Proc. of the 40th Ann. Tech. Conf., New Orleans, LA, Society of Vacuum Coaters (1997).

R. Wang and C.C. Lee, "Design of antireflection coating using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film prepared by Ion Assisted Deposition (IAD)," in Proc. of the 42nd Ann. Tech. Conf., Chicago, I1, Society of Vacuum Coaters (1999).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a representative MEMS optical switch, showing a typical signal path through 8 surfaces of the AR-coated windows, and one possible noise path from unwanted hermetic sealing window reflections.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a hermetic package for an optical MEMS device, showing electrical attachment of the conductive AR-coated window to the ceramic chip carrier by solder or brazing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated values of Ts, Rs , and PDLT (rows a–c) for different angles of incidence and refractive index profiles (row d) for three different conducting AR coatings (columns 1–3)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated values of Ts, Rs , and PDLT (rows a–c) for different angles of incidence and refractive index profiles (row d) for three different non-conducting AR coatings (columns 1–3)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated Ts, PDLT values (columns 1, 2) for 38° incidence of four windows placed in series, each with two AR-coated surfaces: row a — two conducting ARs of Fig. 3 d3; row b — two non-conducting ARs of Fig. 4 d2; row c — one conducting and one non-conducting AR.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated values of Ts, Rs, PDLT (rows a–c) for different angles of incidence θ and refractive index profiles (row d) for two additional conducting AR coatings: column 1—AR coating based on ZnS and MgF2 coating materials; column 2 —AR coating designed for angles of incidence 0<θ<55°.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Sensitivity of the calculated values of Ts , and PDLT for 38° incidence of the conducting AR coatings of Fig. 3 (rows a–c) to 1% and 1 nm random errors (columns 1, 2) in the layer thicknesses (see text for details)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Monitoring precision for an experimental conducting AR coating of the type depicted in column 3 of Fig. 3. Figures a and b compare the calculated and the measured in-situ transmittances of monitoring slides for the AR coatings deposited on sides A and B

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the measured normal incidence transmittances of a substrate with the target transmittance and the transmittance calculated from the thicknesses of the layers determined during the deposition. In this and subsequent diagrams, the two sides of each substrate carry the same conducting AR coating.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured normal incidence transmittance T, reflectance R and the sum (T+R).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of the calculated and measured transmittance for unpolarized and p-polarized light incident at 40° of an AR coating prepared during run 3.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Construction parameters and some properties of the layer systems

Equations (1)

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M = { [ 1 126 θ = 1 6 λ = 1 21 ( 0.00 ( T s ) λ , θ 0.02 ) 2 + ( 0.00 PDL λ , θ 0.007 ) 2 ] } 0 . 5

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