Abstract

Optical microscopy has been used to observe structural inhomogeneities at the core-cladding interface of re-heated MCVD optical fiber preforms. Experimental results show that the heat treatment has enhanced these core-cladding interface inhomogeneities. Their formation mechanism and effects on optical applications are also discussed.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Guenot, P. Nouchi, and B. Poumellec, “Influence of drawing temperature on light scattering properties of single-mode fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp. 84–86.
    [Crossref]
  4. M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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  9. A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).
  10. P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  16. G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2004 (3)

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, “Viscosity of silica core optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 232–237 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guénot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1357–1365 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

1974 (1)

Atkins, G.R.

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

Biriukov, A.S.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Bubnov, M.M.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C.A.

Devyatykh, G.G.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Di Giovanni, D.J.

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E.M.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Fajardo, J.C.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guenot, P.

P. Guenot, P. Nouchi, and B. Poumellec, “Influence of drawing temperature on light scattering properties of single-mode fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp. 84–86.
[Crossref]

Guénot, Ph.

Gur’yanov, A.N.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Guryanov, A.N.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gusovskii, D.D.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Hamblin, J.R.

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Kajioka, T. Kumagai, T. Ishikawa, and T. Teraoka, “Analysis of drawing-induced stress and loss mechanisms in dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988) p. 75.

Kajima, K.

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kajioka, H.

H. Kajioka, T. Kumagai, T. Ishikawa, and T. Teraoka, “Analysis of drawing-induced stress and loss mechanisms in dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988) p. 75.

Kaplin, I.J.

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keita, B.

Khitun, A.G.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Khopin, V.F.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kobis, S.V.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Koh, J.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuksenkov, D.V.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, T.

H. Kajioka, T. Kumagai, T. Ishikawa, and T. Teraoka, “Analysis of drawing-induced stress and loss mechanisms in dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988) p. 75.

Kurkov, A.S.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

Lavrishchev, S.V.

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leto, A.

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

Likhachev, M.E.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lines, M.E.

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lyytikainen, K.J.

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

MacChesney, J.B.

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

Mashinsky, V.M.

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mazumder, P.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

McNamara, P.

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nadjo, R.

Neustruev, V.B.

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nicolardot, M.

Nockolds, C.E.

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nouchi, P.

P. Guenot, P. Nouchi, and B. Poumellec, “Influence of drawing temperature on light scattering properties of single-mode fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp. 84–86.
[Crossref]

O’Connor, P.B.

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pezzotti, G.

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

Poole, S.B.

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guénot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1357–1365 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Guenot, P. Nouchi, and B. Poumellec, “Influence of drawing temperature on light scattering properties of single-mode fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp. 84–86.
[Crossref]

Presby, H.M.

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

Reed, W.A.

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ringer, S.P.

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ryan, T.

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, S.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, “Viscosity of silica core optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 232–237 (1999).
[Crossref]

Salganskii, M.Y.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salganskii, M.Yu.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sazhin, O.D.

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sbaizero, O.

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sceats, M.G.

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

Semenov, S.L.

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Semjonov, S.L.

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shiraki, K.

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Simmons, H.W.

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

Standley, R.D.

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

C.A. Burrus and R.D. Standley, “Viewing refractive-index profiles and small-scale inhomogeneities in glass optical fibers: some techniques,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2365–2369 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajima, K.

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tateda, M.

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

Teraoka, T.

H. Kajioka, T. Kumagai, T. Ishikawa, and T. Teraoka, “Analysis of drawing-induced stress and loss mechanisms in dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988) p. 75.

Todoroki, S.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, “Viscosity of silica core optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 232–237 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vechkanov, N.N.

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H.M. Presby, R.D. Standley, J.B. MacChesney, and P.B. O’Connor, “Material structure of germanium-doped optical fibers and preforms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681–1692 (1975).

Electron. Lett. (4)

M.E. Lines, W.A. Reed, D.J. Di Giovanni, and J.R. Hamblin, “Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1009–1010 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, K. Kajima, and K. Shiraki, “Fluorine concentration dependence of viscosity in F-doped silica glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1008–1010 (1992).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, S.B. Poole, M.G. Sceats, H.W. Simmons, and C.E. Nockolds, “Defects in optical fibres in regions of high stress gradients,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1432–1433 (1991).
[Crossref]

G.R. Atkins, M.G. Sceats, S.B. Poole, and H.W. Simmons, “Profiling of drawing induced defects in optical fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 28, 768–769 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Takeda, M. Ohashi, K. Tajima, and K. Shiraki, “Design of viscosity-matched optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1023–1025 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, M.E. Likhachev, E.M. Dianov, V.F. Khopin, M.Y. Salganskii, A.N. Guryanov, J.C. Fajardo, D.V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, “On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2-doped single-mode MCVD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1870–1872 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, “Viscosity of silica core optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 232–237 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

G. Pezzotti, A. Leto, K. Tanaka, and O. Sbaizero, “Piezo-spectroscopic assessment of nanoscopic residual stresses in Er3+-doped optical fibres,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7687–7695 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. McNamara, K.J. Lyytikainen, T. Ryan, I.J. Kaplin, and S.P. Ringer, “Germanium-rich “starburst” cores in silica-based optical fibres fabricated by modified chemical vapour deposition,” Opt. Commun. 230, 45–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

E.M. Dianov, V.M. Mashinsky, V.B. Neustruev, O.D. Sazhin, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, N.N. Vechkanov, and S.V. Lavrishchev, “Origin of excess loss in single-mode optical fibers with high GeO2-doped silica core,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 77–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semenov, V.F. Khopin, M.Yu. Salganskii, A.N. Gur’yanov, and E.M. Dianov, “Optical Losses in single-mode and multimode fibres heavily doped with GeO2 and P2O5,” Quantum Electron. 34, 241–246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. Guenot, P. Nouchi, and B. Poumellec, “Influence of drawing temperature on light scattering properties of single-mode fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp. 84–86.
[Crossref]

H. Kajioka, T. Kumagai, T. Ishikawa, and T. Teraoka, “Analysis of drawing-induced stress and loss mechanisms in dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fibers,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988) p. 75.

A.S. Biriukov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, A.G. Khitun, G.G. Devyatykh, A.N. Gur’yanov, D.D. Gusovskii, and S.V. Kobis, “Core-cladding interface disturbances during the collapsing process is one of the origins of optical losses in heavily doped fibers,” in International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India ’96, J. P. Raina and P. R. Vaya, eds., Proc. SPIE3211, 309–314 (1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Refractive index profiles of the two MCVD optical fiber preforms. (a) Ge-doped preform; (b) P-doped preform.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Ge-doped preform core showing “starburst” feature. (a) optical micrograph (transmission); (b) scanning electron micrograph (secondary electron).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Surface micrographs from optical microscope of a P-doped preform sample (a) before heating and (b) after heating.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Feature-enhanced micrograph of a heated un-polished P-doped sample.

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