Abstract

An array of fused silica waveguiding channels with randomly distributed transverse sizes in a disordered microstructure fiber is shown to allow a highly efficient broadly tunable frequency conversion of low-energy ultrashort laser pulses. Dispersion can be switched in such waveguide arrays by coupling the pump field into waveguiding wires with different diameters. Microstructure-fiber-integrated random arrays of waveguides with diameters ranging from 0.6 up to 1.5 µm can frequency-convert unamplified subnanojoule Ti: sapphire laser pulses with an initial duration of 30 fs to any wavelength within a broad spectral range from 400 up to 700 nm, suggesting interesting fiber-optic strategies for multiplex frequency conversion and sensing.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. P. St. J. Russell, ???Photonic crystal fibers,??? Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel???skii, Y. Kondrat???ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, ???Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,??? Appl. Phys. B 77, 299???305 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, ???Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,??? Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, W. Kiefer, K. V. Dukel'skii, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat'ev, ???Efficient anti-Stokes generation through phase-matched four wave mixing in higher-order modes of a microstructure fiber,??? Opt. Lett. 28, 1948-1950 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, ???Tapered photonic crystal fibers,??? Opt. Express 12, 776-784 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Tong, J. Lou and E. Mazur, ???Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,??? Opt. Express 12, 1025-1035 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1025">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1025</a>.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Foster and A. L. Gaeta, "Ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation in sub-wavelength waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3137-3143 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. O. Konorov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, Yu. N. Kondrat???ev, V. S. Shevandin, K. V. Dukel???skii, A. V. Khokhlov, A. A. Podshivalov, A. N. Petrov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov, ???Generation of Frequency-Tunable Radiation within the Wavelength Range of 350???600 nm through Nonlinear-Optical Spectral Transformation of Femtosecond Cr: Forsterite-Laser Pulses in Submicron Fused Silica Threads of a Microstructure Fiber,??? Laser Phys. 13, 1170-1174 (2003).
  11. A. M. Zheltikov, ???The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,??? Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 410???415 (2003); A.M. Zheltikov, ???Limiting Efficiencies of Nonlinear-Optical Processes in Microstructure Fibers,??? JETP 97, 505 - 521 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Pickrell, W. Peng, and A. Wang, ???Random-hole optical fiber evanescent-wave gas sensing,??? Opt. Lett. 29, 1476-1478 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, ???Holey fibers with random cladding distributions,??? Opt. Lett. 25, 206-208 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker Jr., W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, ???Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,???, Opt. Lett. 28, 1224-1226 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, ???Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,??? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753-764, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, S. Coen, ???Supercontinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,??? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765-771 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, ???Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,??? Opt. Commun. 192, 219 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, ???Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber,??? Opt. Lett. 26, 358-360 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel???skii, Y. Kondrat???ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, ???Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,??? Appl. Phys. B 77, 299???305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (1)

S. O. Konorov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, Yu. N. Kondrat???ev, V. S. Shevandin, K. V. Dukel???skii, A. V. Khokhlov, A. A. Podshivalov, A. N. Petrov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov, ???Generation of Frequency-Tunable Radiation within the Wavelength Range of 350???600 nm through Nonlinear-Optical Spectral Transformation of Femtosecond Cr: Forsterite-Laser Pulses in Submicron Fused Silica Threads of a Microstructure Fiber,??? Laser Phys. 13, 1170-1174 (2003).

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, ???Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,??? Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, ???Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,??? Opt. Commun. 192, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

M. A. Foster and A. L. Gaeta, "Ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation in sub-wavelength waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3137-3143 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, ???Tapered photonic crystal fibers,??? Opt. Express 12, 776-784 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, J. Lou and E. Mazur, ???Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,??? Opt. Express 12, 1025-1035 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1025">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1025</a>.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, ???The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,??? Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 410???415 (2003); A.M. Zheltikov, ???Limiting Efficiencies of Nonlinear-Optical Processes in Microstructure Fibers,??? JETP 97, 505 - 521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, ???Photonic crystal fibers,??? Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope images of the random-hole microstructure fiber: (a) general view and (b) a close-up view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Group-velocity dispersion as a function of the wavelength for channels 1–5 (curves 1–5, respectively) in the microstructure fiber shown in Fig. 1. Squares present experimental data. (b, c) Transverse intensity profiles for the fundamental mode of (b) the rectangular waveguide channel bounded by four air holes and (c) the triangular waveguide channel bounded by three air holes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of radiation transmitted through channels 1 (a) and 2 (b) of the random microstructure fiber with a length of 3 cm. The input pump power of Ti: sapphire laser pulses coupled into the fiber is 7 mW (curve 1), 15 mW (curve 2), and 30 mW (curve 3). (c) The spectrum of supercontinuum emission from the microstructure fiber. The pump power coupled into the fiber is 15 mW (curve 1), 30 mW (curve 2), and 60 mW (curve 3). The initial pulse duration is 30 fs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output beam patterns of anti-Stokes-shifted emission from channels 1–6 in Fig. 1(b) (a–f) of the random microstructure fiber.

Metrics