Abstract

A twin-hole fiber was provided with Au-Sn alloy electrodes and thermally poled at 255 °C with 4.3 kV applied during 155 minutes. An electric field 6×107 V/m was recorded. The poled fiber was cleaved and etched, revealing that the depletion region overlapped the entire core, was wedge shaped and pointed towards the cathode. The recorded profile closely followed the spatial distribution of the poling field.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  2. P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russel, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Fokine, L. E. Nilsson, A. Claesson, D. Berlemont, L. Kjellberg, L. Krummenacher, and W. Margulis, “Integrated fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer for electro-optic switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1643 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)
  7. R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, “Stable second-order nonlinearity in SiO2-based waveguides on Si using temperature/electric-field poling,” in Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE2289, 158 (1994)
  8. D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  9. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” Submitted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2004)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russel, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Arentoft, J.

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

Berlemont, D.

Birch, R. D.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Blazkiewicz, P.

Brueck, S. R. J.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[Crossref]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, “Stable second-order nonlinearity in SiO2-based waveguides on Si using temperature/electric-field poling,” in Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE2289, 158 (1994)

Claesson, A.

Dong, L.

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[Crossref]

Flemming, S.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2004)
[Crossref]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[Crossref]

Fokine, M.

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[Crossref]

Janos, M.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russel, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[Crossref]

Kjellberg, L.

Krummenacher, L.

Kudlinski, A.

Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” Submitted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2004)

Li, L.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Lo, K.-M.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

Long, X.-C.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

Martinelli, G.

Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” Submitted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2004)

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[Crossref]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, “Stable second-order nonlinearity in SiO2-based waveguides on Si using temperature/electric-field poling,” in Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE2289, 158 (1994)

Nilsson, L. E.

Pannell, C. N.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Pruneri, V.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[Crossref]

Quiquempois, Y.

Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” Submitted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2004)

Russel, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russel, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumminelli, R. P.

R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, “Stable second-order nonlinearity in SiO2-based waveguides on Si using temperature/electric-field poling,” in Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE2289, 158 (1994)

Wong, D.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2004)
[Crossref]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2004)
[Crossref]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[Crossref]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (1)

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Fib. Tech. (1)

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Flemming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phot. Tech. Lett. (2)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[Crossref]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Flemming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” Submitted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2004)

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, “Stable second-order nonlinearity in SiO2-based waveguides on Si using temperature/electric-field poling,” in Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE2289, 158 (1994)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the 125 µm fiber cross section. The anode hole is the one closest to the core.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity response of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the fiber component as the active arm. Vπ~1.37 kV at 1550 nm after poling. The intensity response is nonlinear with applied voltage both before and after poling since Δϕ;∝(Eext+Erec)2 The inset shows the parabolic relation between Δϕ and applied voltage, Vext, obtained by fitting Eq. 1 to the measured intensity. The signal is noisier before poling since the fiber was not as firmly mounted as after poling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of optical intensity versus applied voltage for the data points shown in Fig. 2 after poling. Two relatively good fittings are shown using Eq. 1, where very different values of Vrec are used (1200 V and 1950 V). This shows that the fit using such a limited phase excursion is very imprecise when determining the recorded field. Likewise, the value of χ (3) inferred varies from 1.86×10-22 m2/V2 (violet curve) to 2.36×10-22 m2/V2 (orange curve). Both fittings are well within the error margin of the experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity modulation of Mach-Zehnder interferometer at 1.55 µm with poled fiber in active arm as the DC bias is changed. The minimum corresponds to the external voltage that cancels the effect of the recorded field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Poled 125 µm fiber etched for 45 seconds and imaged using a phase contrast microscope. On the right, simulation of the field applied during poling.

Equations (2)

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I 1 = I o { 1 + cos [ Δ ϕ Δ ϕ o ] } = I o { 1 + cos [ 3 π L λ n o χ ( 3 ) ( E ext 2 + 2 E ext E rec + E rec 2 ) Δ ϕ o ] }
χ eff ( 2 ) ( E O ) = 3 2 E rec χ ( 3 )

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