Abstract

We present an effective approach to manage dispersion compensation for a fiber-optic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system in which an electro-optic (EO) phase modulator or an acousto-optic (AO) frequency modulator is used. To balance both the second and third order dispersion caused by the modulator, two independent optical components would be needed. The approach reported here combines a grating-lens delay line and an extra length of a single-mode optical fiber, enabling full compensation of the dispersion caused by the modulator up to the third order. Theoretical analysis of the proposed dispersion management scheme is provided. Experimental results confirmed the theoretical prediction and an optimal OCT axial resolution offered by the light source was recovered. The proposed method can potentially incorporate dynamic dispersion compensation for the sample during depth scanning.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto," Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, "A white-light interferometer using a lamp source and heterodyne detection with acousto-optic modulators," Opt. Commun. 170, 217-220 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Q. Xie, Z. G. Wang, and Y. T. Pan, "High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation," Opt. Express 11, 3210-3219 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3210</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, "Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 1763-1765 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, "Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144-151 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. K. Niblack, J. O. Schenk, B. Liu, and M. E. Brezinski, "Dispersion in a grating-based optical delay line for optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 4115-4118 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Characterization of Fluid-Flow Velocity by Optical Doppler Tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 1337-1339 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, "Numerical dispersion compensation for Partial Coherence Interferometry and Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 9, 610-615 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-12-610">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-12-610</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. de Boer, C. E. Saxer, and J. S. Nelson, "Stable carrier generation and phase-resolved digital data processing in optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5787-5790 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, "Autofocus algorithm for dispersion correction in optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3038-3046 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. F. Kwong, D. Yankelevich, K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, and A. Dienes, "400-Hz Mechanical Scanning Optical Delay-Line," Opt. Lett. 18, 558-560 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454-458 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. D. J. Smith, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, "Real-time dispersion compensation in scanning interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 1998-2000 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, vol. II, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.
  20. A. G. Van Engen, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, "Dispersion measurements of water with white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 5679-5686 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454-458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, "Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144-151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, "A white-light interferometer using a lamp source and heterodyne detection with acousto-optic modulators," Opt. Commun. 170, 217-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

E. D. J. Smith, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, "Real-time dispersion compensation in scanning interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 1998-2000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, "Rapid-scanning forward-imaging miniature endoscope for real-time optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 1763-1765 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Kwong, D. Yankelevich, K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, and A. Dienes, "400-Hz Mechanical Scanning Optical Delay-Line," Opt. Lett. 18, 558-560 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Characterization of Fluid-Flow Velocity by Optical Doppler Tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 1337-1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto," Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, vol. II, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a RSOD. The beam path is: M (incident on the grating) → A (on the lens) → O (on the tilting mirror) → B (back on to the lens) → N (on the grating). θi is the beam incident angle on the grating (with respect to the normal of the grating); θλ is the diffraction angle at wavelength λ (again with respect to the normal of the grating); θ 0 is angle between the grating normal and the optical axis of the lens; Δθ=θ 0-θλ is the angle between the diffracted beam at wavelength λ and the optical axis; γ is the tilt angle of the scanning mirror. x o is the vertical offset of the mirror pivoting axis relative to the optical axis; y o is the vertical distance between the beam incident point on the grating (M) and the optical axis. Line MP is perpendicular to the outgoing beam and P is the point of interception; Line OO’ goes through the center of the lens and is perpendicular to Line MO’; MO’ intercepts with the extension of the Line BN at point P’. Note that Lines MA, BN and OO’ are parallel with each other. L is the distance between the grating and the lens and f is the focal length of the lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a fiber-optic OCT system in which an EO phase modulator (or an AO frequency modulator) and a RSOD are implemented in the reference arm. An extra length of single-mode fiber (indicated by “Extra SMF”) in the sample arm is introduced in conjunction with the RSOD in the reference arm to fully compensate the dispersion in the OCT system up to the third order. Details are described in Sections 3 and 4.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A) The theoretical net GVD (ϕ″) and TOD (ϕ‴) of the OCT system in which the sample and reference arms have an equal length of single-mode fibers (SMF28) and the GVD of the LiNbO3 is compensated by the RSOD. The net GVD (TOD) is defined as the GVD (TOD) of the sample arm minus the GVD (TOD) of the reference arm; (B) The measured OCT interference signal; (C) and (D) Experimental GVD (ϕ″) and TOD (ϕ‴) of the OCT system calculated from the Fourier transform of the measured OCT interference signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(A) The theoretical net GVD and TOD of the OCT system with a 671-mm-long extra fiber in the sample arm and L-f=77 mm; (B) The measured OCT interference signal; and (C) and (D) Experimental GVD (ϕ″) and TOD (ϕ‴) of the OCT system calculated from the Fourier transform of the interference signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A-B) The GVD and TOD calculated from the measured OCT fringe signal (C) when both the GVD and TOD were compensated for a light source of 125-nm bandwidth at a center wavelength 825 nm. (D-E) The GVD and TOD calculated from the measured OCT fringe signal (F) when the GVD was fully compensated but the TOD was partially compensated for the same light source. The degradation of the axial resolution and the increased side lobes were evident in this case as shown in (F).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Second and Third Order Dispersions at 1.29 µm

Tables Icon

Table 2. GVD and TOD Change versus Pathlength Scanning

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l = 2 O O + N P N P .
ϕ ( ω ) = 4 ω c { L cos ( Δ θ ) + f cos ( Δ θ ) + [ f tan ( Δ θ ) x o ] tan γ + y o sin ( Δ θ ) } ,
ϕ = 2 ϕ ( ω ) ω 2 = 16 π 2 c ω 3 m 2 d 2 cos 2 θ λ ( L f ) ( 1 Δ θ ) ,
ϕ = ϕ 3 ( ω ) ω 3 = 48 m 2 π 2 c ( L f ) d 2 ω 4 cos 2 θ λ [ 1 + ( tan θ λ + 1 3 Δ θ ) ( 2 π m c ω d cos θ λ ) ] + 192 π 3 m 3 c 2 f d 3 ω 5 cos 3 θ λ Δ θ .
ϕ γ 16 π 2 c ω 3 m 2 f d 2 cos 2 θ λ tan γ ( tan θ λ + 2 Δ θ ) ,
ϕ γ = 48 m 2 π 2 cf d 4 ω 4 cos 2 θ λ tan γ [ tan θ λ + 2 Δ θ + 2 π m c ω d cos θ λ ( 1 cos 2 θ λ + 4 3 Δ θ ) ] .
C R 2 ( L f ) + ϕ M = C f 2 l ,
C R 3 ( L f ) + ϕ M = C f 3 l .
L f = ϕ M C f 2 ϕ M C f 3 C R 2 C f 3 C R 3 C f 2 ,
l = ϕ M C R 2 ϕ M C R 3 C R 2 C f 3 C R 3 C f 2 .

Metrics