Abstract

Recently, we developed a phase resolved polarization sensitive OCT system based on transversal scanning. This system was now improved and adapted for retinal imaging in vivo. We accelerated the image acquisition speed by a factor of 10 and adapted the system for light sources emitting at 820nm. The improved instrument records 1000 transversal lines per second. Two different scanning modes enable either the acquisition of high resolution B-scan images containing 1600×500 pixels in 500ms or the recording of 3D data sets by C-scan mode imaging. This allows acquiring a 3D-data set containing 1000×100×100 pixels in 10 seconds. We present polarization sensitive B-scan images and to the best of our knowledge, the first 3D-data sets of retardation and fast axis orientation of fovea and optic nerve head region in vivo. The polarizing and birefringence properties of different retinal layers: retinal pigment epithelium, Henle’s fiber layer, and retinal nerve fiber layer are studied.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (9)

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain OCT,” Opt. Express 12, 2156–2165 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=79930
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger: “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, R. G. Cucu, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo T-scan based polarization sensitive OCT of the optic nerve,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 300–305 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12. 2435–2447 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalcyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606–2612 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

2002 (4)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1610–1612 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82–86 (2002)
[PubMed]

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, “Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during laser polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 2221–2228 (2002)
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston, and L. B. Da Silva, “Birefringence characterization of biological tissue by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 228–230 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt and S. H. Xiang, “Cross-polarized backscatter in optical coherence tomography of biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1060–2062 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation, ” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

1992 (2)

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opti. 31, 3730–3735 (1992)
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

H. B. klein Brink and G. J. van Blockland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49–57 (1988)
[CrossRef]

H. B. klein Brink and G. J. van Blockland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 49–57 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Allouch, C.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Boxer, A. C.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. C. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119/2003)
[CrossRef]

Caprioli, J.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Coleman, A. L.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Cucu, R. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, R. G. Cucu, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo T-scan based polarization sensitive OCT of the optic nerve,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 300–305 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. C. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119/2003)
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606–2612 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29, 480–482 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12. 2435–2447 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography, ” Opt. Express 11, 782–793 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-782
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1610–1612 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation, ” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opti. 31, 3730–3735 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain OCT,” Opt. Express 12, 2156–2165 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=79930
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducros, M.G.

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalcyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

Erginay, A.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain OCT,” Opt. Express 12, 2156–2165 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=79930
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical coherence tomography”, Chapter 4 in Progress in Optics44, Elsevier Science B.V. (2002)

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalcyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garway-Heath, D. F.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Gaudric, A.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Greaney, M. J.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haouchine, B.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain OCT,” Opt. Express 12, 2156–2165 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=79930
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger: “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Zhou. “Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 2753–2761 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical coherence tomography”, Chapter 4 in Progress in Optics44, Elsevier Science B.V. (2002)

Hoffman, D. C.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. R.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82–86 (2002)
[PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. C. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119/2003)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation, ” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

klein Brink, H. B.

H. B. klein Brink and G. J. van Blockland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49–57 (1988)
[CrossRef]

H. B. klein Brink and G. J. van Blockland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 5, 49–57 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R. W.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Linear birefringence of the central human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82–86 (2002)
[PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalcyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 2404–2422 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Kowalcyk, A.

Kowalczyk, A.

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger: “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, P. W.

Marsack, J. D.

Massin, P.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Metge, F.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakla, M.

M. J. Greaney, D. C. Hoffman, D. F. Garway-Heath, M. Nakla, A. L. Coleman, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to distinguish normal eyes from those with Glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 140–145 (2002)
[PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Paques, M.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger: “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12, 3236–3244 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3236
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, R. G. Cucu, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo T-scan based polarization sensitive OCT of the optic nerve,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 300–305 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. C. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119/2003)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation, ” Opt. Lett. 23, 147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

Reiter, K.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, “Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Appl. Opti. 31, 3730–3735 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. B.

A. G. Podoleanu, R. G. Cucu, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo T-scan based polarization sensitive OCT of the optic nerve,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 300–305 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. C. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119/2003)
[CrossRef]

Rylander III, H.G.

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Signal and resolution enhancements in dual beam optical coherence tomography of the human eye,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 45–54 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenenberger, K.

Scholda, C.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Schuhman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kaertner, J. S. Schuhman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nature Med. 7, 502–507 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeger, M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry, ” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12–20 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Sticker, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stur, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995)
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tangui, L.

P. Massin, C. Allouch, B. Haouchine, F. Metge, M. Paques, L. Tangui, A. Erginay, and A. Gaudric, “Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic maclular epiretinal membranes before and after surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmology 130, 732–739 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G. J.

Thomsen, S. L.

Trost, P.

Unterhuber, A.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain OCT,” Opt. Express 12, 2156–2165 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=79930
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch-Ophthalmology 121, 695–706 (2003)
[CrossRef]

van Blockland, G. J.

H. B. klein Brink and G. J. van Blockland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49–57 (1988)
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: MOV (677 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

B-scan of human fovea in vivo (~5×1mm2) (a) intensity (the layers are labeled as follows: ILM, internal limiting membrane; NFL, nerve fiber layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer; IPL and OPL, inner and outer plexiform layer; INL and ONL, inner and outer nuclear layer; HF, Henle fiber layer; ELM, external limiting membrane; IPRL, interface between inner and outer segments of photoreceptor layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium), (b) retardation (c.f., color bar; δ=0° to 90°), (c) cumulative fast axis orientation (c.f., color bar; Θ=0° to 180°), (d) (e) (f) enlarged sections (x2) of (a), (b) and (c) (to avoid erroneous birefringence data values below a certain intensity threshold are displayed in grey in (b) (c) (e) (f))

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frame no.34 of movie showing several en-face images of a 3D data set of a human fovea region in vivo at different depth positions. Upper left: intensity image of a B-scan (x-z) (black line corresponds to the depth position of the en face images), upper right: en face (x-y) intensity image, lower left: en face cumulative fast axis orientation image (c.f. color bar; Θ=0° to 180°), lower right: en face retardation image (c.f. color bar; δ=0° to 90°) The black lines correspond to the B-scan position (size 0.8MB) (The data set consists of a volume of 5×5×1.5mm3)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Retardation (a) and cumulative fast axis orientation (b) at the surface of the fovea region. Each image covers an area of 5×5mm2. Histogram of retardation (c) and fast axis orientation (d) values obtained from (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Retardation (a) and cumulative fast axis orientation (b) at the IPRL of the fovea region (each image covers an area of 5×5mm2), and simulated retardation (c) and fast axis orientation (d) (S superior; I inferior; T temporal; N nasal)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frame no.21 of movie showing several en-face images of a 3D data set of a human retinal nerve head region in vivo at different depth positions. Upper left: (B-scan) intensity image (x-z) (black line corresponds to the depth position of the en face images), upper right: en face (x-y) intensity image, lower left: en face cumulative fast axis orientation image (c.f. color bar; Θ=0° to 180°), lower right: en face retardation image (c.f. color bar; δ=0° to 90°). The black lines correspond to the B-scan position (size 0.7MB). (The data set comprises a volume of 5×5×2.5mm3)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Retardation (a) and cumulative fast axis orientation (b) at the top layer of the RPE of the nerve head region (each image covers an area of ~5×5mm2), and simulated retardation (c) and fast axis orientation (d) (S superior; I inferior; T temporal; N nasal)

Equations (6)

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R ( z ) ~ A 1 2 ( z ) + A 2 2 ( z ) ,
δ ( z ) = arctan ( A 2 ( z ) A 1 ( z ) ) .
θ = 180 ° Δ Φ 2 .
cos ( δ ) = cos ( δ 1 ) cos ( δ 2 ) sin ( δ 1 ) sin ( δ 2 ) cos ( 2 ( θ 2 θ 1 ) ) .
M ( δ , θ ) = ( cos 2 ( θ ) + sin 2 ( θ ) exp ( i δ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ( 1 exp ( i δ ) ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ( 1 exp ( i δ ) ) cos 2 ( θ ) exp ( i δ ) + sin 2 ( θ ) )
E s = 1 2 M qwp M A M H R M H M A M qwp ( 0 1 ) ,

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