Abstract

We analyze experimentally the polarization properties of highly nonlinear small-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with no intentional birefringence. The properties of recently emerged polarization maintaining PANDA PCFs are also investigated. The wavelength and temperature dependence of phase and group delay of these fibers are examined in the telecommunications wavelength range. Compared to a standard PANDA fiber, the polarization characteristics and temperature dependence are found to be qualitatively different for both types of fibers.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).
  2. J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Polarization-maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 956–960 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-956.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).
  7. M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241, 339–348 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, “Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12, 5160–5165 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5160.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066–1069 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. C. Rashleigh, “Measurement of fiber birefringence by wavelength scanning: effect of dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 8, 336–338 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. K. Burns and R. P. Moeller, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion in high-birefringence fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 195–197 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).
  16. M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).
  17. M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4739–4744 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983), Chap. 17.

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

Antkowiak, M.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Åslund, M.

Barkou Libori, S. E.

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

Berghmans, F.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Berthelot, L.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).

Bock, W. J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

Broeng, J.

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

Burns, W. K.

Canning, J.

Chartier, T.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Digweed, J.

Fernandez, A.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Folkenberg, J. R.

Folkenberg, J.R.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B. L.

B. L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hideur, A.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Jensen, J. R.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).

Knudsen, E.

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

Kotynski, R.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Legré, M.

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lempereur, S.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lesiak, P.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983), Chap. 17.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikäinen, K.

Martynkien, T.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241, 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

Mélin, G.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michie, A.

Moeller, R. P.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Nielsen, M. D.

J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Polarization-maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 956–960 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-956.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).

Niemi, T.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Passy, R.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, A.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyrilloux, A.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S. C.

Reecht, J.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Polarization-maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 956–960 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-956.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983), Chap. 17.

Statkiewicz, G.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241, 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

Thienpont, H.

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

Urbanczyk, W.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241, 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

Vienne, G.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).

Von der Weid, J. P.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Tech. (3)

M. Legré, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, “Investigation of the ratio between phase and group birefringence in optical single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 3374–3378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Peyrilloux, T. Chartier, A. Hideur, L. Berthelot, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, D. Pagnoux, and P. Roy, “Theoretical and experimental study of the birefringence of a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 536–539, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 828–835, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071–1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folkenberg, A. Pettersson, and H. Ludvigsen, “Polarizationmode dispersion of large mode-area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241, 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. L. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent frequency-domain reflectometry,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458–1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Jensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Modeling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, vol. 2, 707–708, San Diego, USA, (2001).

T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, R. Kotynski, M. Antkowiak, A. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Birefringent photonic crystal fiber as a multi-parameter sensor,” in Proceedings of Laser & Electro-Optics Society, 29–32, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003).

S. E. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper TuM2, Anaheim, USA (2001).

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, “Influence of temperature on birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, paper WeP10, Warsaw, Poland (2002).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983), Chap. 17.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sections of the analyzed PCFs. (From left to right) PANDA5 (PANDA7 and PANDA9 have the same cross-section with a different scaling), PCF3, and PCF2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase delay (a,d), group delay (b,e) and ratio of B/β (c,f) as a function of wavelength for PCF2/PCF3 and PANDA5/PANDA9, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

KT as a function of wavelength. Arrows indicate corresponding scales.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

B as a function of temperature @ 1550 nm (averaged over at least 10 nm intervals). Arrows indicate corresponding scales.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Birefringence properties of different PCF samples and standard PANDA fiber @ 1550 nm.

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Table 2. Temperature sensitivities of phase and group delay @ 1550 nm.

Equations (2)

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L b = λ c β = 2 π β rad ,
B β rad ω = β λ β λ .

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