Abstract

This paper presents methods used to improve reflective dielectric film color pictures. These changes include improvements in color purity, increased brightness, and elimination of any light absorption within the film layers. The color picture is fabricated by varying the silicon dioxide film thicknesses across a silicon wafer and coating the entire wafer with a thin layer of silicon nitride. In addition to the demonstration of fabricated color pictures, we also present more detailed calculation of basis colors and provide details of the fabrication process.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Thomas, “Preserving information having permanent value, simple but not easy,” Pro. Of the IS&T Annual Conference 200–203 (1996).
  2. H. Kang, “Water-based ink-jet. II. Characterization,” J. imaging Science 35, 189–194 (1991).
  3. P. Adelstein, “Standards on the permanence of recording materials,” Proc. SPIE CR61, 155–175 (1996).
  4. H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).
  5. M. Gratzel, “Material Science - Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature575–576 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).
  7. Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).
  8. J. Henrie, S. Kellis, S. Schultz, and A. Hawkins, “Electronic color charts for dielectric films on silicon,” Opt. Express 12, 1464–1469, (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Hecht and A Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1975).
  10. J. Walker, “Colour rendering of spectra,” (1996), http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend/
  11. D. Post, “Colorimetric measurement, calibration, and characterization of self-luminous displays,” Color in Electronic Displays (Plenum Press, 1992).
  12. B Lindbloom “XYZ to RGB,” http://www.brucelindbloom.com.

2004 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Adelstein, “Standards on the permanence of recording materials,” Proc. SPIE CR61, 155–175 (1996).

1991 (1)

H. Kang, “Water-based ink-jet. II. Characterization,” J. imaging Science 35, 189–194 (1991).

Adelstein, P.

P. Adelstein, “Standards on the permanence of recording materials,” Proc. SPIE CR61, 155–175 (1996).

Beutler, J.

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

Edwards, M. O. M.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Gratzel, M.

M. Gratzel, “Material Science - Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature575–576 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruszecki, T.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Hagfeldt, A.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Hawkins, A.

Hawkins, A. R.

A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).

Hawkins, Aaron

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht and A Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1975).

Henrie, J.

Johansson, L. H.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Kang, H.

H. Kang, “Water-based ink-jet. II. Characterization,” J. imaging Science 35, 189–194 (1991).

Kellis, S.

Lindbloom, B

B Lindbloom “XYZ to RGB,” http://www.brucelindbloom.com.

Lowther, M.

A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).

Norberg, A.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Pettersson, H.

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

Post, D.

D. Post, “Colorimetric measurement, calibration, and characterization of self-luminous displays,” Color in Electronic Displays (Plenum Press, 1992).

Sanber, G.

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

Schultz, S.

J. Henrie, S. Kellis, S. Schultz, and A. Hawkins, “Electronic color charts for dielectric films on silicon,” Opt. Express 12, 1464–1469, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

Schultz, S. M.

A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).

Thomas, B.

B. Thomas, “Preserving information having permanent value, simple but not easy,” Pro. Of the IS&T Annual Conference 200–203 (1996).

Walker, J.

J. Walker, “Colour rendering of spectra,” (1996), http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend/

Wang, R.

A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

Zajac, A

E. Hecht and A Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1975).

J. imaging Science (1)

H. Kang, “Water-based ink-jet. II. Characterization,” J. imaging Science 35, 189–194 (1991).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Adelstein, “Standards on the permanence of recording materials,” Proc. SPIE CR61, 155–175 (1996).

Other (9)

H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, L. H. Johansson, A. Norberg, M. O. M. Edwards, and A. Hagfeldt, “Screen-printed electrochromic displays based in nanocrystalline electrodes,” SID Digest of Technical Papers 123 (2002).

M. Gratzel, “Material Science - Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature575–576 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Hawkins, R. Wang, M. Lowther, and S. M. Schultz, “Teaching Microfabrication Based Materials Processing Using Color Pictures From Dielectric Films,” Journal of Materials Education26, (2004 accepted).

Aaron Hawkins, R. Wang, G. Sanber, J. Beutler, and S. Schultz, “Color Pictures Using Dielectric Films,” Color Res. and Appl. (accepted).

E. Hecht and A Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 1975).

J. Walker, “Colour rendering of spectra,” (1996), http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/specrend/

D. Post, “Colorimetric measurement, calibration, and characterization of self-luminous displays,” Color in Electronic Displays (Plenum Press, 1992).

B Lindbloom “XYZ to RGB,” http://www.brucelindbloom.com.

B. Thomas, “Preserving information having permanent value, simple but not easy,” Pro. Of the IS&T Annual Conference 200–203 (1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of light interaction with a thin-film system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflectance plot R(λ) for an oxide depth of 360 nm with 5 thicknesses of nitride coating ranging from no nitride up to 80nm of nitride..

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Colors produced by a thin layer of silicon dioxide as a function of thickness both (a) without and (b) with a 60nm thick layer of silicon nitride.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The fraction of the power reflected, and (b) the color as a function of film thickness for a silicon nitride film on silicon at a viewing angle of 18°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pixel layout.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The RGB parameters as a function of oxide thickness without a silicon nitride layer and (b) with a 60nm thick layer of silicon nitride, where the actual basis colors are shown.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Illustration of the basic fabrication process.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Dielectric color pictures fabricated with (a) just silicon dioxide on silicon and (b) silicon dioxide and silicon nitride on silicon.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Example of area calculations to produce the colors shown in Fig. 5(a).

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