Abstract

A method based on the variation of the area ratio of the base surface of microlenses to the light-emitting surface of the planar OLED device has been demonstrated. This method can evaluate the performance of microlens arrays with a desired geometrical shape on the improvement of the luminance efficiency for the planar light emitting devices. The maximum enhancement of the luminance efficiency of the devices in the studied microlens arrays is 56%. It is also found that the improvement of the luminance efficiency of the devices increases linearly with decreasing base length of the microlens array.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  7. M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1927–1929 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  8. M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595–604 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
    [CrossRef]

2004

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595–604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1927–1929 (2001)
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1993

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. L.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595–604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1927–1929 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C. F.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595–604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1927–1929 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mat. 15, 1043–1048 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1149–1152 (2001)
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1393–1396 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993)
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, “GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire microlenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253–2255 (2004)
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243–1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic lightemitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650–1652 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “External coupling efficiency in planar organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1927–1929 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595–604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Other

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, H. S. Kwok, “Coupling efficiency enhancement of organic light emitting devices with refractive microlens array on high index glass substrate,” SID 04 Digest, 158–161 (2004)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the experimental process flow.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microphotograph of the duplicated microlens array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relationship between the luminance ratio and area ratio for microlens arrays with different base lengths, where B0 is 500 cd/m2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relationship between k1 and the base length of microlens array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The far-field luminance pattern of a planar OLED without and with microlenses at different spacings. (The base length of microlenses is 100 µm)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The values of k1 and k2 at different base lengths of microlens array

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R area = A microlenses A device = ( L L + d ) 2
E = B · A I
B microlenses B 0 = E microlenses E 0
B B 0 = k 1 R area + k 2
k 1 = E microlenses E 0 E 0
k 1 = 0 . 002 · L + 1 . 085

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