Abstract

Abstract We show strong changes in chemical etching of phosphorus-doped fiber cores due to hydrogen loading and subsequent UV-irradiation using an atomic force microscope. The etch rate of the fiber core in a low concentration hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) is decreasing after hydrogen loading by as much as 30%. In contrast, UV-irradiation of the hydrogenated fiber increases the core etch rate to values of 27% above the etch rate of the pristine fiber. The UV-induced change in etch rate does not depend on pulse fluence, but only on total dose. We attribute the changes in etch rate to a hydrogen- and radiation-induced modification of color center population.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2004 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. M. Knotter, “Etching mechanism of vitreous silicon dioxide in HF-based solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 4345–51 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

K. W. Plessner and S. J. Stannard-Powell, “Attenuation/time relation for OH formation in optical fibers exposed to H2,” Elect. Lett. 20, 250–252 (1984).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bubnov, M.M.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

Cochet, F.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Effects of drawing tension on the photosensitivity of Sn-Ge- and B-Ge-codoped core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1402–1404 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

DeLiso, E.M.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Yu. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, “UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1754–1756 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianovet al., “CW highly efficient 1.24 µm Raman laser based on low-loss phosphosilicate fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’99), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), paper PD25.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

Dianov, E.M.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Effects of drawing tension on the photosensitivity of Sn-Ge- and B-Ge-codoped core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1402–1404 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dürr, F.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

F. Dürr, G. Jänchen, H. G. Limberger, and S. L. Semjonov, “Atomic force microscopy study of UV-irradiated nitrogen-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses (POWAG 2002), paper MoA8.

Egorova, O.N.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Englund, M.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gujrathi, S.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Guryanov, A.N.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hattori, K.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hermann, W.

Hibino, Y.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huntington, S.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

Huntington, S. T.

Hutjens, M.

Inniss, D.

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jänchen, G.

F. Dürr, G. Jänchen, H. G. Limberger, and S. L. Semjonov, “Atomic force microscopy study of UV-irradiated nitrogen-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses (POWAG 2002), paper MoA8.

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kajihara, K.

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khopin, V.F.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kitagawa, T.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Knotter, D. M.

D. M. Knotter, “Etching mechanism of vitreous silicon dioxide in HF-based solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 4345–51 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koltashev, V. V.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ky, N. H.

Larionov, Y. V.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

Lemaire, P. J.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

Limberger, H. G.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Effects of drawing tension on the photosensitivity of Sn-Ge- and B-Ge-codoped core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1402–1404 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Yu. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, “UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1754–1756 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Dürr, G. Jänchen, H. G. Limberger, and S. L. Semjonov, “Atomic force microscopy study of UV-irradiated nitrogen-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses (POWAG 2002), paper MoA8.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

Love, J. D.

Lyytikäinen, K.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Masanori, O.

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pace, P.

Plessner, K. W.

K. W. Plessner and S. J. Stannard-Powell, “Attenuation/time relation for OH formation in optical fibers exposed to H2,” Elect. Lett. 20, 250–252 (1984).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Pyrkov, Yu. N.

Reed, W. A.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

Rybaltovsky, A. A.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

Salathe, R. P.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

Salathé, R. P.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Effects of drawing tension on the photosensitivity of Sn-Ge- and B-Ge-codoped core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1402–1404 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, Yu. N. Pyrkov, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, “UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation of germanosilicate glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1754–1756 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

Semjonov, S. L.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

F. Dürr, G. Jänchen, H. G. Limberger, and S. L. Semjonov, “Atomic force microscopy study of UV-irradiated nitrogen-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses (POWAG 2002), paper MoA8.

Semjonov, S.L.

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sommer, K.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

Stannard-Powell, S. J.

K. W. Plessner and S. J. Stannard-Powell, “Attenuation/time relation for OH formation in optical fibers exposed to H2,” Elect. Lett. 20, 250–252 (1984).
[Crossref]

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

Tomozawa, M.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

White, A. E.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

Wiechert, D. U.

Yan, M. F.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

Zhong, Q.

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mat. (1)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate based optical fibers,” Adv. Mat. 13, 970–973, (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 516–518 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Inniss, Q. Zhong, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, S. G. Kosinski, and P. J. Lemaire, “Atomic force microscopy study of uv-induced anisotropy in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1528–1530 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069–3071 (1996).
[Crossref]

Elect. Lett. (1)

K. W. Plessner and S. J. Stannard-Powell, “Attenuation/time relation for OH formation in optical fibers exposed to H2,” Elect. Lett. 20, 250–252 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. M. Knotter, “Etching mechanism of vitreous silicon dioxide in HF-based solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 4345–51 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and O. Masanori, “Photochemistry in phosphorus-doped silica glass by ArF excimer laser irradiation: Crucial effect of H2 loading,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4121–4124 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of the lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, “Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 209, 166–174 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M.M. Bubnov, E.M. Dianov, O.N. Egorova, S.L. Semjonov, A.N. Guryanov, V.F. Khopin, and E.M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorus-doped fibers for Raman lasers,” Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, A. A. Rybaltovsky, Y. V. Larionov, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “UV-induced stress changes in phosphorous-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP ’03), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), paper BThA2.

F. Dürr, G. Jänchen, H. G. Limberger, and S. L. Semjonov, “Atomic force microscopy study of UV-irradiated nitrogen-doped fibers drawn at different drawing tensions,” in Summer School on Photosensitivity in Optical Waveguides and Glasses (POWAG 2002), paper MoA8.

E. M. Dianovet al., “CW highly efficient 1.24 µm Raman laser based on low-loss phosphosilicate fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’99), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), paper PD25.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, “Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorus-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’95), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1995), pp. 159–60.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM image of phosphorus-doped fiber after etching in hydrofluoric acid for 180 seconds. The core is observed as crater since it is etched faster than the concentric inner cladding SiO2 layers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Etch dynamics of the pristine phosphorus-doped fiber core for two different etch times. The difference in diameter reflects the core width error due to side etching.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the preforms refractive index profile with the etch profile of the pristine fiber. The preform diameter has been downscaled for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlation of etch rate with refractive index difference and phosphorous content, respectively. As for germanium-doped fibers [1], a power-law dependence of etch rate on refractive index is found.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relative etch depth as function of time for the etch maxima. For all samples under investigation, the etch maxima depend linearly on time.

Equations (1)

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