Abstract

Optical-heterodyne measurements are made on ~842-nm signal output of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled KTiOPO4 pumped at 532 nm by long (~27-ns) pulses from a Nd:YAG laser. At low pump energies (≤2.5 times the free-running threshold), the narrowband tunable OPO output is single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) and frequency chirp can be <10 MHz, much less than the transform-limited optical bandwidth (~17.5 MHz). We explore the transition from SLM operation to multimode operation as pump energy or phase mismatch are increased, causing unseeded cavity modes to build up later in the pulse.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 1248-1250 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 21, 1577- 1585 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M.S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, "Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231-241 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, "Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402-2411 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S �?? 2 1S transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed nanosecond optical parametric oscillators by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171-173 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Fix and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties of pulsed nanosecond optical parametric oscillators: experimental investigations and numerical analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2484-2497 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, "Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253 - 2267 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Mahnke and H. H. Klingenberg, "Observation and analysis of mode competition in optic parametric oscillators," Appl. Phys. B 78, 171-177 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, "Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an �??intensity-dip�?? method," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203-3213 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. He and B. J. Orr, "Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser," Appl. Opt. 40, 4836-4848 (2001).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Mahnke and H. H. Klingenberg, "Observation and analysis of mode competition in optic parametric oscillators," Appl. Phys. B 78, 171-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed nanosecond optical parametric oscillators by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171-173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (7)

A. Fix and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties of pulsed nanosecond optical parametric oscillators: experimental investigations and numerical analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2484-2497 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, "Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253 - 2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, "Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231-241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, "Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402-2411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S �?? 2 1S transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 21, 1577- 1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M.S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum (1)

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, "Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an �??intensity-dip�?? method," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203-3213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (102 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (483 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of the FT chirp analysis procedure for output from a long-pulse injection-seeded PPKTP OPO. Traces (a) and (b) depict the measured temporal profiles for amplitude and OH beat waveform, respectively, as measured for an actual OPO signal pulse. The FT algorithm converts trace (b) into the power spectrum in trace (c), where two OH sidebands are displaced from a central peak by the AOM frequency (~730 MHz), then one OH sideband is electronically filtered and FT-analysed to yield the temporal profiles of reconstructed OPO pulse amplitude and instantaneous frequency f inst(t) in traces (d) and (e), respectively. Vertical dashed lines indicate 10%-intensity points of the OPO pulses, indicating the range over which frequency chirp can be (conservatively) estimated. The pump-pulse energy (64 µJ) is twice the unseeded threshold level and the PPKTP temperature is T PPKTP=125.0°C, so that the signal wavelength of the free-running PPKTP OPO is λfree=841.75±0.02 nm. The TDL-seeded signal wavelength λs (841.76±0.01 nm) is virtually identical to λfree; this minimizes phase mismatch and attains a frequency chirp of less than 10 MHz, as seen in the finst profile in trace (e). (104 KB movie of a dynamic sequence of temporal profiles for 20 successive OPO pulses.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the long-pulse injection-seeded PPKTP OPO and its OH detection system. A1, A2: attenuators. AOM: acousto-optic modulator (~730 MHz). BS1, BS2: beam splitters. DO: digital oscilloscope. L1–L4: lenses. M1–M4: cavity mirrors. MMO: mode-matching optics. OI: optical isolator. PD1, PD2: fast photodetectors. PZT: piezoelectric translator. SF: spatial filter. TDL: tunable diode laser. WM: pulsed wavemeter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The authors (from left: BJO, MK, YH, RTW, and KGHB) with the pulsed tunable OPO and OH detection system. (b) The four-mirror ring cavity of the injection-seeded PPKTP OPO and its cavity-locking feedback system. (c) False-color images of the transverse profile of the SLM signal output beam from the PPKTP OPO, measured at a distance of 20 cm from the beam waist (for which w 0=110 µm) by a Spiricon LBA-100A and Pulnix TM-745 system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OPO beat waveforms (a, d), intensity profiles (b, e), and instantaneous-frequency chirp profiles (c, f) for signal output from the long-pulse PPKTP OPO with low phase mismatch. Traces (a–c) correspond to SLM operation with lower OPO pump energy (Rp =1.55) than in traces (d–f), where Rp =3.5 and partial seeding sets in halfway through the OPO pulse. In traces (c) and (f), vertical dashed lines mark the 10%-intensity limits for the f inst profile.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temporal waveforms with format as in Figs 4(a–c) or 4(d–f) for signal output from the long-pulse PPKTP OPO system with large phase mismatch and high OPO pump-pulse energy (Rp =3.5). This results in partial seeding and multimode operation at a transition point earlier in the OPO pulse than in Fig. 4(d–f) (where Rp =3.5 also but the phase mismatch and resulting frequency chirp are smaller), which is a more severe breakdown of SLM operation. (494 KB movie of a five-frame dynamic sequence of temporal profiles as pump energy is increased.)

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