Abstract

A physical model is presented to understand and calculate trapping force exerted on a dielectric micro-particle under focused evanescent wave illumination. This model is based on our recent vectorial diffraction model by a high numerical aperture objective operating under the total internal condition. As a result, trapping force in a focused evanescent spot generated by both plane wave (TEM00) and doughnut beam (TEM* 01) illumination is calculated, showing an agreement with the measured results. It is also revealed by this model that unlike optical trapping in the far-field region, optical axial trapping force in an evanescent focal spot increases linearly with the size of a trapped particle. This prediction shows that it is possible to overcome the force of gravity to lift a polystyrene particle of up to 800 nm in radius with a laser beam of power 10 µW.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Gu, J. B. Haumonte, Y. Micheau, and J. W. M. Chon, "Laser trapping and manipulation under focused evanescent wave illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4236-4238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, D. Morrish, and P. C. Ke, "Enhancement of transverse trapping efficiency for a metallic particle using an obstructed laser beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 34-36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, "Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime," Biophys. J. 61, 569-581 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, "Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams," Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures," Science 296, 1101-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Single Mol. (1)

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, "Single molecule detection in life science," Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Trapping efficiency mapping for a small and a large polystyrene particle of radius a, scanned in the X direction (light polarization direction) across the focused evanescent field. NA=1.65, λ=532 nm, ε=0.85, n 1=1.78 and n 2=1.33.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The calculated and measured maximal TTE of a polystyrene particle of 1 µm in radius as a function of the obstruction size ε for P and S scanning directions under plane wave and the doughnut beam illumination. The other conditions are the same as Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The maximal ATE of a polystyrene particle of 1 µm in radius as a function of the obstruction size ε. (b) Dependence of the ATE on the virtual focus position for a small and large polystyrene particle (ε=0.85). The inset shows the phase of the Fresnel transmission coefficients as a function of the incident angle. The other conditions are the same as Fig. 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The maximal ATE as a function of a polystyrene particle size (ε=0.85). The inset shows a schematic relation between the interaction cross-section area and the particle size. (b) The magnitudes of the axial force for a plane wave of power 10 µW and the gravity force for different particle sizes. The other conditions are the same as Fig. 1.

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