Abstract

We have observed laser action from optically-pumped InAs-quantum-dots embedded in a line-defect waveguide in an air-bridge type GaAs-photonic-crystal slab (an array of air-holes). The lasing is found to occur without any optical cavity such as a set of Fabry-Perot mirrors. Comparison of the observed transmittance spectrum with the calculated band dispersion of the W3 defect-mode enables us to specify the lasing wavelength as that at the band edge. From this fact it follows that distributed feedback mechanism at the band edge with a vanishingly small group-velocity should be responsible for the present lasing. Usefulness of this kind of compact laser in a future ultrafast planar photonic integrated circuit is discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals; Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).
  3. Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).
  4. S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, “Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump,” Electron. Lett. 39, 213–214 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Inoshita and T. Baba, “Lasing at bend, branch and intersection of photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 844–845 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoshita and T. Baba, “Lasing at bend, branch and intersection of photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 844–845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, “Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump,” Electron. Lett. 39, 213–214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Asano, T.

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

K. Inoshita and T. Baba, “Lasing at bend, branch and intersection of photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 844–845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, N.

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Inoshita, K.

K. Inoshita and T. Baba, “Lasing at bend, branch and intersection of photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 844–845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Ishida, K.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals; Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Kawai, N.

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Kawamata, J.

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohmoto, S.

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals; Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, K.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, “Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump,” Electron. Lett. 39, 213–214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, M.

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slisher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

Sugitatsu, A.

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, “Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump,” Electron. Lett. 39, 213–214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and K. Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals; Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Kohmoto, H. Nakamura, T. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Site-controlled self-organization of individual InAs quantum dots by scanning probe-assisted nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3488–3490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, and T. Tamamura, “Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325–1327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395–5397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476–3468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Inoshita and T. Baba, “Lasing at bend, branch and intersection of photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 844–845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, “Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump,” Electron. Lett. 39, 213–214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y. Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys,  43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, and K. Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda, and J. W. Haus, “A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157–L159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals; Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, N. Kawai, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Light propagation characteristics of photonic crystal waveguide for miniaturized ultra-fast optical-pulse control/delay devices,” in Photonic Technology in the 21st Century, Proc. SPIE4598, 58–72 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) W3- and (b) W1-line-defect PCS-WGs, which were taken from one side of the cleaved edge. Notice that the cladding layer beneath the core layer in the photonic crystal area was cleanly dissolved.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of the emission spectrum with the increase of pumping fluence; the emission was observed with an optical fiber placed in front of the cleaved edge of a W3 line-defect PCW-WG. The pumping fluence is (a) 1.65×105, (b) 4.95×105, and (c) 5.5×106 W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A plot of the intensity of the narrow spectral line (laser) at 1281 nm as a function of pumping fluence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectrum (red line) of the W3 PCS-WG sample. For comparison the spectrum (black line) for a similar sample without QDs is also presented with 28 nm red-shifted relative to the former spectrum; for detail see the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The calculated band structure for the W3 PCS-WG sample (left) with QDs embedded; the parameters are a=315 nm, 2r/a=0.56, d=280 nm. The band structure of the W1 PCS-WG sample (right) is also presented for comparison

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