Abstract

An array of low-symmetry, L-shaped gold nanoparticles is shown to exhibit high sensitivity to the state of incident polarization. Small imperfections in the shape of the actual particles, including asymmetric arm lengths and edge distortions, break the symmetry attributed to an ideal particle. This broken symmetry leads to a large angular displacement of the extinction axes from their expected locations. More significantly, second-harmonic generation experiments reveal significant second-order susceptibility tensor components forbidden to the ideal symmetry.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).
  3. S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13,288 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.
  18. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).
  19. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1992).
  20. M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13,288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

Abajo, F. J. G. d.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anceau, C.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boreman, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1992).

Brasselet, S.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canfield, B. K.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Coles, H. J.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P. V.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotschy, W.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunnarsson, L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Käll, M.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Krenn, J. R.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kujala, S.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, A. D.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monacelli, B.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Papakostas, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persoons, A.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Potts, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prikulis, J.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puscasu, I.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13,288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaich, W. L.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13,288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

Shubin, V. A.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, K.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svirko, Y.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuovinen, H.

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Vahimaa, P.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallius, T.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Verbiest, T.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vonmetz, K.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical dichroism of lithographically designed silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1099–1101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

Wei, Q.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Thin films by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 381–384 (1996).

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “SHG studies of plasmon dephasing in nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 419–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 234–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical signatures of surface chirality,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 403–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

H. Tuovinen, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, P. Vahimaa, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of arrays of noncentrosymmetric gold nanoparticles,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 421–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. V. Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, W. L. Schaich, I. Puscasu, B. Monacelli, and G. Boreman, “Plasmon dispersion relation of Au and Ag nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 155427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. K. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13,265–13,288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16,389–16,408 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-Similar Chain of Metal Nanospheres as an Efficient Nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation by Metal Surfaces with Nanoscale Roughness: Nanoscale Dephasing, Depolarization, and Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. d. Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the Interaction between Light and Gold Nanoparticles: Selective Suppression of Extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical Manifestations of Planar Chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, “Remarkable polarization sensitivity of gold nanoparticle arrays,” submitted Sept. 2004 to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top left: scanning electron micrograph of the sample, indicating the coordinate system used. Top right: polarized extinction spectra. Bottom: basic experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmittance (±.01) and fit to Eq. (1). Vertical lines indicate the axes X and Y. (b) Polarization azimuth rotation data (±0.1°) and model from Eq. (2). The vertical dotted lines indicate the axes A and B, while the horizontal dashed line is a zero-crossing guide to the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simple model to predict axis shift, α, based on the arm length ratio, ρ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized SHG polarization responses for selected combinations of (a) XY polarizations and (b) AB polarizations (solid lines: quadratic fits).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = T A sin 2 ( θ 45 ° α ) + T B cos 2 ( θ 45 ° α ) ,
Δ = arctan [ T B T A tan ( θ 45 ° α ) ] ( θ 45 ° α ) .

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