Abstract

We report the analysis, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of novel subwavelength computer-generated holograms that produce uniform symmetric spot array. We distinguish between a polarization-sensitive and polarization-insensitive far-field reconstruction and show that a linearly polarized incident illumination is required in the former case in order to generate a symmetric reconstruction. The polarization-insensitive case generates a symmetric response independent of the illumination polarization. We show that this response is equivalent to that of a scalar-based computer-generated hologram but with an additional, independent, term that describes the undiffracted zeroth order. These findings simplify the design and optimization of form birefringent computer-generated holograms (F-BCGH) significantly. We present experimental results that verify our analysis and highlight the advantage of these novel elements over scalar-designed elements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, �??Fourier array illuminators with 100% efficiency: analytical Jones-matrix construction,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351-2359 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

U. Levy and Y. Fainman, �??Dispersion properties of inhomogeneous nanostructures,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 21, 881-889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

U. Levy, E. Marom and D. Mendlovic, �??Thin element approximation for the analysis of blazed gratings: simplified model and validity limits,�?? Opt. Commun. 229, 11-21 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (11)

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner and E. Hasman, �??Radially and azimuthally polarized beams generated by space-variant dielectric subwavelength gratings,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 285-287 (2002).

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, �??Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratins,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1141-1143 (2002).

C. Gu and P. Yeh, �??Form birefringence dispersion in periodic layered media,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 504-506 (1996).

F. Xu, R. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. Cheng and A. Scherer, �??Form-birefringent computer-generated holograms,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1513-1515 (1996).

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang and Y. Fainman, �??Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).

J. N. Mait, A. Scherer, O. Dial, D. W. Prather and X. Gao, �??Diffractive lens fabricated with binary features less than 60nm,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 381-383 (2000).

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, �??Paraxial-Domain diffractive elements with 100% efficiency based on polarization gratings,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 785-786 (2000).

F. T. Chen and H. G. Craighead, �??Diffractive phase elements based on two-dimensional artificial dielectrics,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 121-123 (1995).

F. Xu, R. Tyan, P. C. Sun, C. Cheng, A. Scherer and Y. Fainman, �??Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 2457-2459, (1995).

P. Lalanne, S. Astilean, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, H. Launois, �??Blazed binary subwavelength gratings with efficiencies larger than those of conventional echelette gratings,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, 1081-1083 (1998).

F. Gori, �??Measuring Stokes parameters by means of polarization gratings,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 584-586 (1999).

Progress in Optics (1)

O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, �??Digital holography �?? computer-generated holograms,�?? in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol 28, Chap. 1.

Science (1)

S. Kirpatrick, C. D. Gellat, Jr., M. P. Vecchi, �??Optimization by simulated annealing,�?? Science, 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP, 2, 466-475, (1956).

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Cambridge university press 1980), Chap. 14.

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