Abstract

We describe a novel real-time depth-mapping camera, the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera, where pulsed laser light is combined with a gain-modulated camera. Depth resolution of 2.4 mm was obtained, which is higher than the resolution of the previously reported depth-mapping Axi-Vision Camera. Pixel-by-pixel depth information of 768×493 pixels is obtainable at one half of the video frame rate (15 Hz). A short movie clip is attached that illustrates the depth measurement operation. The merits of the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera are high-resolution, real-time operation, and a relatively simple optical system. These merits primarily arise from the ultra-fast exposure time using a pulsed laser diode.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, S.-C. Chu, C. Wah, F. Costen, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Three-dimensional laser microvision,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1784–1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, F. Taga, and S. Fujii, “3D laser microvision,” in Optical Methods in Biomedical and Environmental Science, H. Ohzu and S. Komatsu, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1994) pp.113–116.
  3. T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).
  4. D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, “MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a real-time 3D laser range sensor,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 9–19 (2002).
  5. V. H. Chan and M. Samaan, “Spherical/cylindrical laser scanner for geometric reverse engineering,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 33–40 (2004).
  6. T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, “A stereo machine for video-rate dense depth-mapping and its new applications,” in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196–202.
  7. Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).
  11. T. Azuma, K. Uomori, and A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
  12. Y.-B. Choi and S.-W. Kim, “Phase-shifting grating projection moiré topography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1005–1010 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  16. H. Höfler, V. Jetter, and E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
  17. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time distance-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. J. Iddan and G. Yahav, “3D imaging in the studio (and elsewhere…),” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications IV, B. D. Corner, J. H. Nurre, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE4298, 48–55 (2001).
  19. B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).
  20. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Nakamura, I. Mizuno, T. Kurita, T. Aida, Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, T. Fukaya, H. Kikuchi, and F. Sato, “High-definition real-time depth-mapping TV camera: HDTV Axi-Vision Camera,” Opt. Express 12, 2781–2794 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2781.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, T. Kurita, and H. Kikuchi, “Real-time three-dimensional video image composition by depth information,” IEICE Electronics Express 1, 237–242 (2004), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/1/9/1_237/_article.
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, T. Kurita, and H. Kikuchi, “Real-time three-dimensional video image composition by depth information,” IEICE Electronics Express 1, 237–242 (2004), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/1/9/1_237/_article.
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Nakamura, I. Mizuno, T. Kurita, T. Aida, Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, T. Fukaya, H. Kikuchi, and F. Sato, “High-definition real-time depth-mapping TV camera: HDTV Axi-Vision Camera,” Opt. Express 12, 2781–2794 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2781.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

Y.-B. Choi and S.-W. Kim, “Phase-shifting grating projection moiré topography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1005–1010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Abe, T.

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).

Aida, T.

Aizawa, K.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Asada, K.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azuma, T.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, and A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).

Beraldin, J.-A.

D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, “MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a real-time 3D laser range sensor,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 9–19 (2002).

Blais, F.

D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, “MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a real-time 3D laser range sensor,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 9–19 (2002).

Blanc, N.

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).

Büttgen, B.

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).

Buxbaum, B.

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, “New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,”in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119–128 (1997).

Chan, V. H.

V. H. Chan and M. Samaan, “Spherical/cylindrical laser scanner for geometric reverse engineering,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 33–40 (2004).

Chen, M.

G. Frankowski, M. Chen, and T. Huth, “Real-time 3D shape measurement with digital stripe projection by Texas Instruments micro mirror devices DMD,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 90–105 (2000).

Choi, Y.-B.

Y.-B. Choi and S.-W. Kim, “Phase-shifting grating projection moiré topography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1005–1010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-C.

Costen, F.

Cournoyer, L.

D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, “MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a real-time 3D laser range sensor,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 9–19 (2002).

Demers, M. H.

M. H. Demers, J. D. Hurley, R. C. Wulpern, and J. R. Grindon, “Three dimensional surface capture for body measurement using projected sinusoidal patterns,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3023, 13–25 (1997).

Frankowski, G.

G. Frankowski, M. Chen, and T. Huth, “Real-time 3D shape measurement with digital stripe projection by Texas Instruments micro mirror devices DMD,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 90–105 (2000).

Fujii, S.

H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, F. Taga, and S. Fujii, “3D laser microvision,” in Optical Methods in Biomedical and Environmental Science, H. Ohzu and S. Komatsu, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1994) pp.113–116.

Fujikake, H.

Fukaya, T.

Green, D. A.

D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, “MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a real-time 3D laser range sensor,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 9–19 (2002).

Gregoris, L. G.

Grindon, J. R.

M. H. Demers, J. D. Hurley, R. C. Wulpern, and J. R. Grindon, “Three dimensional surface capture for body measurement using projected sinusoidal patterns,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3023, 13–25 (1997).

Heinol, H.-G.

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, “New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,”in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119–128 (1997).

Höfler, H.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, and E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).

Hurley, J. D.

M. H. Demers, J. D. Hurley, R. C. Wulpern, and J. R. Grindon, “Three dimensional surface capture for body measurement using projected sinusoidal patterns,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3023, 13–25 (1997).

Huth, T.

G. Frankowski, M. Chen, and T. Huth, “Real-time 3D shape measurement with digital stripe projection by Texas Instruments micro mirror devices DMD,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 90–105 (2000).

Ichikawa, T.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Iddan, G. J.

G. J. Iddan and G. Yahav, “3D imaging in the studio (and elsewhere…),” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications IV, B. D. Corner, J. H. Nurre, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE4298, 48–55 (2001).

Iizuka, K.

Ikeda, M.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iyoda, T.

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).

Jetter, V.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, and E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).

Kanade, T.

T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, “A stereo machine for video-rate dense depth-mapping and its new applications,” in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196–202.

Kanamaru, T.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Kano, H.

T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, “A stereo machine for video-rate dense depth-mapping and its new applications,” in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196–202.

Kaufmann, R.

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).

Kawakita, M.

Kikuchi, H.

Kim, S.-W.

Y.-B. Choi and S.-W. Kim, “Phase-shifting grating projection moiré topography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1005–1010 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Oh, S.-Y. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Scanning projection grating moiré topography,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 46–51 (2000).

Kurita, T.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, T. Kurita, and H. Kikuchi, “Real-time three-dimensional video image composition by depth information,” IEICE Electronics Express 1, 237–242 (2004), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/1/9/1_237/_article.
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Nakamura, I. Mizuno, T. Kurita, T. Aida, Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, T. Fukaya, H. Kikuchi, and F. Sato, “High-definition real-time depth-mapping TV camera: HDTV Axi-Vision Camera,” Opt. Express 12, 2781–2794 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2781.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-Y.

J.-T. Oh, S.-Y. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Scanning projection grating moiré topography,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 46–51 (2000).

Mitsumine, H.

Mizuno, I.

Morimura, A.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, and A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).

Naemura, T.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Nakamura, H.

Nishikawa, O.

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).

Oda, K.

T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, “A stereo machine for video-rate dense depth-mapping and its new applications,” in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196–202.

Oggier, T.

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).

Oh, J.-T.

J.-T. Oh, S.-Y. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Scanning projection grating moiré topography,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 46–51 (2000).

Oike, Y.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olk, J.

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, “New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,”in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119–128 (1997).

Saito, T.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Samaan, M.

V. H. Chan and M. Samaan, “Spherical/cylindrical laser scanner for geometric reverse engineering,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 33–40 (2004).

Sato, F.

Schwarte, R.

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, “New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,”in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119–128 (1997).

Seitz, P.

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, “Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE5302, 9–20 (2004).

Shimotahira, H.

H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, S.-C. Chu, C. Wah, F. Costen, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Three-dimensional laser microvision,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, F. Taga, and S. Fujii, “3D laser microvision,” in Optical Methods in Biomedical and Environmental Science, H. Ohzu and S. Komatsu, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1994) pp.113–116.

Taga, F.

H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, F. Taga, and S. Fujii, “3D laser microvision,” in Optical Methods in Biomedical and Environmental Science, H. Ohzu and S. Komatsu, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1994) pp.113–116.

Takizawa, K.

Tanaka, M.

T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, “A stereo machine for video-rate dense depth-mapping and its new applications,” in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196–202.

Tokai, K.

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).

Uomori, K.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, and A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).

Wagner, E.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, and E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).

Wah, C.

Wulpern, R. C.

M. H. Demers, J. D. Hurley, R. C. Wulpern, and J. R. Grindon, “Three dimensional surface capture for body measurement using projected sinusoidal patterns,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3023, 13–25 (1997).

Xu, Z.

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, “New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,”in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119–128 (1997).

Yahav, G.

G. J. Iddan and G. Yahav, “3D imaging in the studio (and elsewhere…),” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications IV, B. D. Corner, J. H. Nurre, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE4298, 48–55 (2001).

Yamada, K.

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, “Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 80–89 (2000).

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, O. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, “New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE4661, 20–29 (2002).

Yamanouchi, Y.

Yonai, J.

Yoshida, A.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modulation of the camera gain as a function of time. (a) Linearly ascending gain of the camera. (b) Linearly descending gain of the camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output video signal versus distance to the object.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement using an object with five steps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(2.9 MB) Video obtained by the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera. The object is a long-nosed “Tengu” mask on a turntable. (a) Video taken during the ascending gain of the camera, (b) video taken during the descending gain of the camera, (c) color-coded depth video, (d) color video of the object.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G + = gt ,
I + = ρ I 0 g ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 ( t p + 2 d v ) ,
G = g ( T g 2 t ) ,
I = ρ I 0 g ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 [ T g 2 ( t p + 2 d v ) ] .
I + I = R ,
d = v 2 [ T g R 2 ( R + 1 ) t p ] .

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