Abstract

We describe a novel real-time depth-mapping camera, the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera, where pulsed laser light is combined with a gain-modulated camera. Depth resolution of 2.4 mm was obtained, which is higher than the resolution of the previously reported depth-mapping Axi-Vision Camera. Pixel-by-pixel depth information of 768×493 pixels is obtainable at one half of the video frame rate (15 Hz). A short movie clip is attached that illustrates the depth measurement operation. The merits of the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera are high-resolution, real-time operation, and a relatively simple optical system. These merits primarily arise from the ultra-fast exposure time using a pulsed laser diode.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, �??Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640 �? 480 pixel resolution,�?? IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 39, 622-628 (2004)
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electronics Express (1)

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, T. Kurita, and H. Kikuchi, �??Real-time three-dimensional video image composition by depth information,�?? IEICE Electronics Express 1, 237-242 (2004), <a href="http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/1/9/1_237/_article">http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/1/9/1_237/_article</a>
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. B. Choi and S. W. Kim, �??Phase-shifting grating projection moiré topography,�?? Opt. Eng. 37, 1005-1010 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optical Methods in Biomedical and Enviro (1)

H. Shimotahira, K. Iizuka, F. Taga, and S. Fujii, �??3D laser microvision,�?? in Optical Methods in Biomedical and Environmental Science, H. Ohzu and S. Komatsu, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1994) pp.113-116

Proc. SPIE (12)

T. Kanamaru, K. Yamada, T. Ichikawa, T. Naemura, K. Aizawa, and T. Saito, �??Acquisition of 3D image representation in multimedia ambiance communication using 3D laser scanner and digital camera,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3958, 80-89 (2000).

D. A. Green, F. Blais, J.-A. Beraldin, and L. Cournoyer, �??MDSP: a modular DSP architecture for a realtime 3D laser range sensor,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, B. D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 4661, 9-19 (2002)

V. H. Chan and M. Samaan, �??Spherical/cylindrical laser scanner for geometric reverse engineering,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5302, 33-40 (2004)

G. Frankowski, M. Chen, and T. Huth, �??Real-time 3D shape measurement with digital stripe projection by Texas Instruments micro mirror devices DMD,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3958, 90-105 (2000)

M. H. Demers, J. D. Hurley, R. C. Wulpern, and J. R. Grindon, �??Three dimensional surface capture for body measurement using projected sinusoidal patterns,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3023, 13-25 (1997)

T. Abe, K. Tokai, Y. Yamaguchi, P. Nishikawa, and T. Iyoda, �??New range finder based on the re-encoding method and its application to 3D object modeling,�?? in Three-dimensional Image Capture and Applications V. B.D. Corner, R. P. Pargas, and J.H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 4661, 20-29 (2002)

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, and A. Morimura, �??Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3640, 11-20 (1999)

J. T. Oh, S. Y. Lee, and S. W. Kim, �??Scanning projection grating moiré topography,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3958, 46-51 (2000)

R. Schwarte, Z. Xu, H.-G. Heinol, J. Olk, and B. Buxbaum, �??New optical four-quadrant phase-detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D-cameras,�??in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications, R. N. Ellson and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3023, 119-128 (1997)

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, and E. Wagner, �??3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, B. D. Corner and J. H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE 3640, 21-27 (1999)

G. J. Iddan and G. Yahav, �??3D imaging in the studio (and elsewhere...),�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications IV, B. D. Corner J. H. Nurre, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE 4298, 48-55 (2001)

B. Büttgen, T. Oggier, R. Kaufmann, P. Seitz, and N. Blanc, �??Demonstration of a novel drift field pixel structure for the demodulation of modulated light waves with application in three-dimensional image capture,�?? in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications VI, B. D. Corner, P. Li, and R. P. Pargas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5302, 9-20 (2004)

Other (1)

T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, K. Oda, H. Kano, and M. Tanaka, �??A stereo machine for video-rate dense depthmapping and its new applications,�?? in Proceedings of the 15th Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (San Francisco, California, 1996), pp. 196-202

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modulation of the camera gain as a function of time. (a) Linearly ascending gain of the camera. (b) Linearly descending gain of the camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output video signal versus distance to the object.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement using an object with five steps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(2.9 MB) Video obtained by the Gain-modulated Axi-Vision Camera. The object is a long-nosed “Tengu” mask on a turntable. (a) Video taken during the ascending gain of the camera, (b) video taken during the descending gain of the camera, (c) color-coded depth video, (d) color video of the object.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G + = gt ,
I + = ρ I 0 g ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 ( t p + 2 d v ) ,
G = g ( T g 2 t ) ,
I = ρ I 0 g ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 [ T g 2 ( t p + 2 d v ) ] .
I + I = R ,
d = v 2 [ T g R 2 ( R + 1 ) t p ] .

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