Abstract

In this letter we present a physical model, both theoretically and experimentally, which describes the mechanism for the conversion of evanescent photons into propagating photons detectable by an imaging system. The conversion mechanism consists of two physical processes, near-field Mie scattering enhanced by morphology dependant resonance and vectorial diffraction. For dielectric probe particles, these two processes lead to the formation of an interference-like pattern in the far-field of a collecting objective. The detailed knowledge of the far-field structure of converted evanescent photons is extremely important for designing novel detection systems. This model should find broad applications in near-field imaging, optical nanometry and near-field metrology.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Gu and P. C. Ke, "Effect of depolarization of scattering evanescent waves on near-field imaging with laser-trapped particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 175-177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, "Near-field optical-scanning microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

D. Ganic, X. Gan, and M. Gu, "Parametric study of three-dimensional near-field Mie scattering by dielectric particles," Opt. Commun. 216, 1-10 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phil. Mag.

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending the microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region," Phil. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).

Phys. Rev. B

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, "Material Contrast in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) at 1-10 nm Resolution," Phys. Rev. B 55, 7977-7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrell, "New form of scanning optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 39, 767-770 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Carminati and J. J. Sáenz, "Scattering theory of Bardeen's formalism for tunneling: New approach to near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5156-5159 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, "Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458-461 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. X. Bian, R. C. Dunn, X. S. Xie, and P. T. Leung, "Single molecule emission characteristics in near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4772-4775 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160-163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Microsc. Soc.

D. McMullan, "The prehistory of scanned image microscopy Part 1: scanned optical microscopes," Proc. R. Microsc. Soc. 25, 127-131 (1990).

Proc. Royal. Soc. A.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems, II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system," Proc. Royal. Soc. A. 253, 358-379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Near-field optics: Microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit," Science 257, 189-195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution," Science 269, 1083-1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Single Mol.

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, "Single molecule detection in life science," Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of our theoretical model for evanescent photon conversion. (b) Representation of the lens transformation process. (c) Experimental setup for recording the FID of converted evanescent photons, collected by a high NA objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated FID in the image focal plane of a 0.8 NA objective. TE (top row) and TM (bottom row) incident illumination. (a) and (e) a=100 nm. (b) and (f) a=500 nm. (c) and (g) a=1000 nm. (d) and (h) a=2000 nm. Particle refractive index is 1.59, and illumination wavelength is 633 nm. All figures are normalised to 100.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum intensity in the FID as a function of the particle radius near MDR for TE (a) and TM (b) illumination. Insets show the full normalized FID representing off and on resonance cases. Insets FID images are centered in the focal plane and their size is 220 µm×220 µm. Particle refractive index is 1.59, and illumination wavelength is 633 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated (top) and observed (bottom) FID in image focal plane of a 0.8 NA objective collecting propagating photons converted by a=240 nm polystyrene particle under TE (left column) and TM (right column) incident illumination.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated and observed y axis scan through x=0, in image focal plane of a 0.8 NA objective collecting propagating photons converted by 1000 nm (radius) polystyrene particle under TE incident illumination. (a) Calculated results. (b) Observed results (full line) where the dotted line represents the convolution of the calculated results and the PSF of the imaging lens. Insets show the calculated and observed FID.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) A schematic diagram of a pinhole detection process. Only the rays coming from the front focal region are detected. (b) Detected signal intensity as a function of a pinhole radius, in optical coordinates, for uniformly illuminated objective. Assumed objective NA=0.8 in the front focal region, aperture size ρ a=3 mm and the back focal length of the objective f=160 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Scattered level as a function of pinhole size (in optical coordinates) of a polystyrene particle for TE illumination (left column) and TM illumination (right column). Assumed objective NA=0.8 in the front focal region, aperture size ρ a=3 mm and the back focal length of the objective f=160 mm. (a) and (d) Particle radius 0.1 µm. (b) and (e) Particle radius 0.5 µm. (c) and (f) Particle radius 1.0 µm. Signal level is defined as the signal intensity normalized by the total signal intensity when pinhole radius R→∞.

Equations (6)

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E S C ( r ) = lm { c β E ( l , m ) n 2 ω l ( l + 1 ) h l ( 1 ) ( k r ) r sin θ [ θ ( Y lm θ sin θ ) + 1 sin θ 2 Y lm φ 2 ] r 1
+ [ ( 1 ) β M ( l , m ) h l ( 1 ) ( k r ) i sin θ l ( l + 1 ) Y lm φ c β E ( l , m ) n 2 ω l ( l + 1 ) 1 r Y l m θ r ( r h l ( 1 ) ( k r ) ) ] θ 1
+ [ β M ( l , m ) h l ( 1 ) ( k r ) i l ( l + 1 ) Y l m θ c β E ( l , m ) n 2 ω l ( l + 1 ) 1 r sin θ Y l m φ r ( r h l ( 1 ) ( k r ) ) ] φ 1 } .
E ( r 2 , ψ , z 2 ) = i λ Ω ( E r 1 r ̂ 2 + E θ 1 θ ̂ 2 + E φ 1 φ ̂ 2 ) exp [ i k r 2 sin θ 2 cos ( φ 2 ψ ) ]
× exp ( i k z 2 cos θ 2 ) sin θ 2 d θ 2 d φ 2 ,
η = 0 R 0 2 π I ( r , ϕ ) rdrd ϕ 0 0 2 π I ( r , ϕ ) rdrd ϕ ,

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