Abstract

High performance, short coherence length light sources with broad bandwidths and high output powers are critical for high-speed, ultrahigh resolution OCT imaging. We demonstrate a new, high performance light source for ultrahigh resolution OCT. Bandwidths of 140 nm at 1300 nm center wavelength with high output powers of 330 mW are generated by an all-fiber Raman light source based on a continuous-wave Yb-fiber laser-pumped microstructure fiber. The light source is compact, robust, turnkey and requires no optical alignment. In vivo, ultrahigh resolution, high-speed, time domain OCT imaging with <5 µm axial resolution is demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Provino, J.M. Dudley, H. Maillotte, N. Grossard, R.S. Windeler, and B.J. Eggleton, "Compact broadband continuum source based on microchip laser-pumped microstructured fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 558-560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, "Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (12)

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, I.P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 1839-1841 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.A. Champert, S.V. Popov, and J.R. Taylor, "Generation of multiwatt, broadband continua in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 122-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.V. Avdokhin, S.V. Popov, and J.R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.L. Abbas, V.W.S. Chan, and T.K. Yee, "Local-oscillator excess-noise suppression for homodyne and heterodyne detection," Opt. Lett. 8, 419-421 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, S.A. Boppart, M.R. Hee, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X.D. Li, C. Chudoba, R.K. Ghanta, T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.K. Ranka, and R.S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A.F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, P.S.J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.M. Wang, Y.H. Zhao, J.S. Nelson, Z.P. Chen, and R.S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 182-184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.M. Kowalevicz, Jr., T.R. Schibli, F.X. Kartner, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E.M. Anger, P.K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J.E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, "Compact, lowcost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 905-907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, "Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-micron axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 28, 707-709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J.M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M.A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K.L. Corwin, N.R. Newbury, J.M. Dudley, S. Coen, S.A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R.S. Windeler, "Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904-1-113904-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (12)

» Media 1: MPG (2357 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (8328 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2371 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (6196 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (2336 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (8306 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (6196 KB)     
» Media 8: AVI (1747 KB)     
» Media 9: AVI (1747 KB)     
» Media 10: MPG (2296 KB)     
» Media 11: AVI (6024 KB)     
» Media 12: MPG (2167 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: Schematic of Raman continuum source. SMF: Single-mode fiber. Right: Output spectrum of the Raman continuum source. The output was 5.5W total, with 2.3 W in the spectral range from 1090 to 1370 nm. The output was filtered using a special WDM coupler to remove the pump wavelength and shape the spectrum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical output spectrum of the Raman fiber light source before and after spectral shaping. (b) RF noise spectrum. High frequency oscillations are caused by spurious reflections from the fiber splices. Dual-balanced detection is used to reduce excess noise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of high-speed, ultrahigh resolution OCT system using an all-fiber Raman continuum light source. The system uses broadband 80/20 and 50/50 couplers to optimize the power on the sample and coupled back to the detectors. Dispersion was matched in the sample and reference arms of the interferometer in order to maintain high axial resolution.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Point spread function measured using an isolated 3.0 OD attenuated reflection from a mirror. The axial resolution is 6.3 µm in air, corresponding to <5 µm in tissue. (b) Logarithmically demodulated signal showing low sidelobes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In vivo high-speed OCT images of human skin. The stratum corneum layer (SC), epithelium (E), dermis, dermal-epidermal junction (inset left) and a spiraling sweat duct (inset right) can clearly be seen. Images were acquired at 3.2 frames per second. (~18 µm×4.8 µm transverse x axial resolution; 500×1000 pixels; 2.25 mm×1.8 mm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

High-speed, ultrahigh resolution in vivo OCT image of Syrian hamster cheek pouch. The keratinized epithelial layer (e), muscular layers (m), and two prominent vessels (v) are clearly visible. A microscope cover glass (c) was placed over the top of the cheek pouch. (~18 µm×4.8 µm transverse x axial resolution; 500×1000 pixels; 2.4 mm×1.4 mm).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three-dimensional volume imaging using in vivo ultrahigh resolution OCT images acquired at 3.2 frames per second. (a). (2.3 MB) Movie showing sequential transverse slices of hamster cheek pouch with two large vessels, corresponding to the normal OCT view (6.0 MB version). (b) (2.4 MB) Movie showing en face slices at different depths, perpendicular to the OCT view, allowing features such as epithelial folds and vessels to be visualized (8.3 MB version). The rendered volumes cover 2.4 mm×1.0 mm×1.8 mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.4 MB) Movie showing rendered volume of hamster cheek pouch constructed from a three-dimensional dataset. The tissue volume can be viewed from arbitrary virtual perspectives. The rendered volume covers 2.4 mm×1.0 mm by approximately 1.8 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) (2.2 MB) Movie showing en face slices of human fingerpad created from cross-sectional images. Spiraling sweat ducts are seen along the fingerpad ridges (2.25×0.75×1.8 mm) (8.3 MB version). (b) (2.3 MB) Movie showing 3D rendering and segmentation of sweat ducts (6.2 MB version). [Media 7] Duct density as well as individual ducts can be assessed (1.7 MB). [Media 9]

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