Abstract

We report the demonstration of the first silicon Raman laser. Experimentally, pulsed Raman laser emission at 1675 nm with 25 MHz repetition rate is demonstrated using a silicon waveguide as the gain medium. The laser has a clear threshold at 9 W peak pump pulse power and a slope efficiency of 8.5%.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)
  10. V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4
  13. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3
  14. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
  17. A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).
  19. P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured on-off gain in the silicon waveguide for a probe signal at 1675 nm. Pumping was done at 1540 nm with 30 ps pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set up used for silicon Raman laser demonstration. A ring cavity configuration is used as a resonator. A modelocked fiber laser at 1540nm is used as a pump laser. The lasing is obtained at the Stokes wavelength of 1675 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured laser output power with respect to peak pump power. Lasing threshold is measured to be at 9 W peak power level. The slope efficiency is ~8.5%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured laser and pump spectra. The laser spectrum has 0.36 nm spectral bandwidth and is located 15.6 THz away from the pump laser. The pump-output separation is precisely the optical phonon frequency in silicon.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured temporal profile of the laser output. (a) 25 ps pulse trace obtained by an autocorrelator at 1675 nm. (b) Oscilloscope trace shows 25 MHz pulse train at 1675 nm.

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