Abstract

We report the demonstration of the first silicon Raman laser. Experimentally, pulsed Raman laser emission at 1675 nm with 25 MHz repetition rate is demonstrated using a silicon waveguide as the gain medium. The laser has a clear threshold at 9 W peak pump pulse power and a slope efficiency of 8.5%.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).
  3. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)
  4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>
  5. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>
  6. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>
  7. T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)
  10. V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)
  11. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
    [CrossRef]
  12. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4
  13. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3
  14. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
  17. A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).
  19. P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang; �??Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.Koonath, T.Indukuri and B.Jalali, �??Vertically-coupled microdisk resonators realized using threedimensional sculpting in Silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, �??Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998)

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps and B. Jalali, �??Raman induced wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,�?? IEICE Electron. Express 12, 298-304 (2004)

Opt. Express (6)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, �??Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305</a>

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, B. Jalali, �??Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731</a>

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, �??Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2862-2872 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862</a>

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, �??Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774</a>
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, �??Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-18-4261</a>
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, �??Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-oninsulator waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 4437-4442 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4437</a>
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. A. Temple, C. E. Hathaway, �??Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,�?? Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685-3697 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Cardona, G. Guntherodt, Light Scattering in Solids II, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995).

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, �??Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,�?? Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer-verlag, New York, 2004).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).

Ming-Chang M. Lee and Ming C. Wu, �??A MEMS-Actuated Tunable Microdisk Resonator,�?? IEEE International Conference on Optical MEMS, 2003, MC3

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang, �??Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA4

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, R. Claps and D. Dimitropoulos, �??Wavelength Conversion and Light Amplification in Silicon Waveguides,�?? Proceedings of International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 2004, WA3

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