Abstract

One of the main challenges in integral imaging is to overcome the limited depth of field. Although it is widely assumed that such limitation is mainly imposed by diffraction due to lenslet imaging, we show that the most restricting factor is the pixelated structure of the sensor (CCD). In this context, we demonstrate that by proper reduction of the fill factor of pickup microlenses, the depth of field can be substantially improved with no deterioration of lateral resolution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).
  2. B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
  3. D. H. McMahon and H. J. Caulfield, �??A technique for producing wide-angle holographic displays,�?? Appl. Opt. 9, 91-96 (1970).
  4. P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, �??Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,�?? Proc. 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172-173.
  5. M. G. Lippmann, �??Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,�?? J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821-825 (1908).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. E. Ives, �??Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171-176 (1931).
  7. N. A. Valyus, Stereoscopy (Focal, London, 1966).
  8. T. Okoshi, "Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-shet and projection type three-dimensional displays," Appl. Opt. 10, 2284-2291 (1971).
  9. Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, "3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Motoki, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, �??Present status of three-dimensional television research,�?? Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995).
  12. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yayuma, "Real time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
  13. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photgraphy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).
  14. L. Erdman and K. J. Gabriel, "High resolution digital photography by use of a scanning microlens array," Appl. Opt. 40, 5592-5599 (2001).
  15. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001).
  16. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
  17. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
  18. J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
  19. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 11, 3528-3541 (2003).
  20. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, �??Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 5805-5812 (2004).
  21. Y. Frauel, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, " Comparison of passive ranging integral imaging and active imaging digital holography for 3D object recognition," Appl. Opt. 43, 452-462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improvement of viewing angle in integral imaging by use of moving lenslet arrays with low fill factor," Appl. Opt. 42, 1996-2002 (2003).
  23. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
  24. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields," Opt. Lett. 28, 1421-1423 (2003).
  25. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with nonuniform focal lengths and aperture sizes," Opt. Lett. 28, 1924-1926 (2003).
  26. F. Jin, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, �??Effects of device resolution on three-dimensional integral imaging,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1345-1347 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, �??Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am A 21, 951-958 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York 1996).

Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS 2003 (1)

P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, �??Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,�?? Proc. 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172-173.

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, �??Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. (1)

M. G. Lippmann, �??Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,�?? J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821-825 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, "3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Motoki, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, �??Present status of three-dimensional television research,�?? Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995).

Other (4)

N. A. Valyus, Stereoscopy (Focal, London, 1966).

J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York 1996).

S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: GIF (333 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (632 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics