Abstract

Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching is used to fabricate the monolithic beam splitter in silicon-on-insulator wafer. The near-field image shows that the symmetric 1×2 T-branch works well. The rms roughness of the corner mirror surfaces is measured by atomic force microscope, and the sidewall surface roughness of rib waveguide is evaluated by the corner mirror rms roughness. The scattering losses from the rough sidewall surfaces and the rough mirror surfaces are evaluated to be 0.5 dB/cm and 0.2 dB/mirror, respectively. And the fiber-waveguide insertion loss is measured approximately 5.0 dB.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
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  6. Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2004 (3)

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stefan Wiechmann, Hans Joachim Heider, and Jörg Müller, “Analysis and Design of Integrated Optical Mirrors in Planar Waveguide Technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1584–1591 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Hei Wong, “Recent developments in silicon optoelectronic devices,” Microelectron Reliab 42, 317–326 (2002).
[Crossref]

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

Abeles, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, Anuradha

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, R.U.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balestra, C.L.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Burns, W.K.

Camarda, G.S.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cassan, Eric

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chabloz, M.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chew, W.C.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.-L.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Coffa, Salvatore

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Cohen, Oded

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristoloveanu, Sorin

Sorin Cristoloveanu, “Silicon on insulator technologies and devices: from present to future,” Solid State Electron. 45, 1402–1411 (2001).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R.L.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Foresi, James

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heider, Hans Joachim

Herrick, R.W.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herve, Pierre

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

Himeno, Akira

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hocker, G.B.

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jones, Richard

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, Lionel C.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Morio

Akira Himeno, Hiroshi Terui, and Morio Kobayashi, “Loss measurement and analysis of high-silica reflection bending optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 41–46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Koster, Alain

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Kwakernaak, M.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laval, Suzanne

Eric Cassan, Laurent Vivien, and Suzanne Laval, “Polarization-independent 90°-turns in single-mode micro-waveguides on silicon-on-insulator wafers for telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 235, 83–88 (2004).
[Crossref]

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Lee, Kevin K.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.M.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lepore, A.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Y.Z. Tang, W.H. Wang, T. Li, and Y.L. Wang, “Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon.Technol.Lett. 14, 68–70(2000).
[Crossref]

Liao, Ling

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libertino, Sebania

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, Desmond R.

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, Ansheng

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, Hsin-Chiao

Kevin K. Lee, Desmond R. Lim, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Anuradha Agarwal, James Foresi, and Lionel C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model”,Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marcuse, Dietrich

Dietrich Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics. Second Eidtion, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.

Matsuura, T.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moghaddam, M.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Müller, Jörg

Nasir, M.A.

S.M. Lee, W.C. Chew, M. Moghaddam, M.A. Nasir, S.-L. Chuang, R.W. Herrick, and C.L. Balestra, “Modeling of rough-surface effects in an optical turning mirror using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9,1471–1480 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, Remus

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R’egis

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Osgood, R.M.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ovadia, Shlomo

Pierre Herve and Shlomo Ovadia, “Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 73–82 (2004).

Paniccia, Mario

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascal, Daniel

R’egis Orobtchouk, Suzanne Laval, Daniel Pascal, and Alain Koster, “Analysis of Integrated Optical Waveguide Mirrors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 815–820 (1997)
[Crossref]

Petermann, Klaus

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pizzuto, F.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rao, H.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G.S. Camarda, R.L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R.M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator”, IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rommel, S. L.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rubin, Doron

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saggio, Mario

Sebania Libertino, Salvatore Coffa, and Mario Saggio, “Design and fabrication of integrated Si-based opoelectronic devices,” Materials Sci. Semicon.Proc. 3, 375–381(2000).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

M. Chabloz, Y. Sakai, T. Matsuura, and K. Tsutsumi, “Improvement of sidewall roughness in deep silicon etching,” Microsystem Technol. 6, 86–89 (2000).
[Crossref]

Samara-Rubio, Dean

Ansheng Liu, Richard Jones, Ling Liao, Dean Samara-Rubio, Doron Rubin, Oded Cohen, Remus Nicolaescu, and Mario Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidtchen, Joachim

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Selvanathan, D.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, “Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116–4118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soref, Richard A.

Richard A. Soref, Joachim Schmidtchen, and Klaus Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1971–1974 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.Z.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Top view of 1×3 compact beam splitter; (b) Top-view of T-branch, and the inset is the near-field image of the 1×2 T-branch; (c) Top-view of corner mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The three-dimensional AFM image of corner mirror surface profile; (b) AFM micrographs of the corner mirror in the etching direction and X direction (the direction perpendicular to etching direction), respectively;
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. New fiber-waveguide endface etched by ICPRIE, and the inset shows anti-reflection

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