Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of rib chalcogenide waveguides produced by dry etching with CF4 and O2. The high index contrast waveguides (Δn ~ 1) show a minimum propagation loss of 0.25 dB/cm. The high refractive nonlinearity of ~ 100 times silica in As2S3 allowed observation of a π phase shift due to self-phase modulation of an 8 ps duration 1573 nm pulse in a 5 cm long waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.
  3. R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glasses,” in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, ed. (Springer,2003).
  4. C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
    [Crossref]
  6. J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Ramachandran and S.G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  73, 3196 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, “Self-phase modulation,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, P.L. Kelley, I. P. Kaminow, and G. P. Agrawal, ed. (Academic,2001).
  12. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).
  13. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.
  14. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

2002 (3)

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Ramachandran and S.G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  73, 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, “Self-phase modulation,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, P.L. Kelley, I. P. Kaminow, and G. P. Agrawal, ed. (Academic,2001).

Aranha, N.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Badding, J. V.

C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
[Crossref]

Barbosa, L. C.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S.G.

S. Ramachandran and S.G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  73, 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

Boswel, R.W.

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Charters, R.B.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheong, S-W.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Duguay, M.A.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glasses,” in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, ed. (Springer,2003).

Foulgoc, K. Le

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fuflyigin, V. N.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Galstian, T. V.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gamaly, E.G.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Hewak, D. W.

C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, R.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Katsufuji, T.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Knystautas, E. J.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lenz, G.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

Luther-Davies, B.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Madden, Steve

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Meneghini, C.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Munin, E.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Neto, J. A. Medeiros

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Numa, K. Naga

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pedroso, C. B.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perry, A. J.

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran and S.G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  73, 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.A.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rode, A.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Rode, A. V.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Y.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Samoc, M.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glasses,” in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, ed. (Springer,2003).

Slusher, R.E.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

Spalter, S.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vender, D.

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Viens, J-F.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villaverde, A. B.

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zakery, A.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, J.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

ACTA Optica Sinica, (1)

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, and M. Samoc, “Nonlinear integrated optical waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” ACTA Optica Sinica, 23 (Supplement 363), 363–364 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran and S.G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  73, 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R.B. Charters, E.G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2s3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.,  197–198, 481–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naga Numa, and H. Itoh, “Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.,  77(11), 5518–5523 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol., (1)

J-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M.A. Duguay, K.A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulphar chalcogenide waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol., 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids, (1)

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, (1)

A. J. Perry, D. Vender, and R.W. Boswel., “The application of the helicon source to plasma processing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.,” B, 9(2), 310–317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng., (1)

C. B. Pedroso, E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, J. A. Medeiros Neto, N. Aranha, and L. C. Barbosa, “High Veredt constant Ga:S:La:O chalcogenide glasses for magneto-optical devices,” Opt. Eng., 38(2), 214–219 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express, (1)

C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and J. V. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express, 12, 2501–2506 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2501
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett, (1)

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S-W. Cheong, and R.E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett, 27(5), 363–365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, “Self-phase modulation,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, P.L. Kelley, I. P. Kaminow, and G. P. Agrawal, ed. (Academic,2001).

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third-order nonlinearities in Ge33As12Se55 glass for high-index contrast fiber devices,” in Proceedings of 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, (USA,2004), pp. CFA3.

R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glasses,” in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B. J. Eggleton, ed. (Springer,2003).

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, M. Samoc, A. Rode, R. Jarvis, and Steve Madden, “ The dispersion of the third order nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and rib waveguides,” to be published.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images showing the profile of As2S3 waveguides etched by helicon plasma using Al masks (a) showing vertical sidewall but corner damage resulted from weak adhesion between Al and As2S3 layer; (b) rough Al mask resulted in rough waveguide sidewall; (c) the cross-section showing smooth corner by inserting a thin photoresist layer; (d) smooth Al mask as well as vertical and smooth waveguide sidewall.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrographs showing the profile of As2S3 waveguides etched by ICP using photoresist mask (a) As2S3 waveguide with photoresist mask (b) coating with polysiloxane cladding, its width is well controlled as required.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) rib waveguide structure; (b) the output mode from As2S3 rib waveguide with a=4.2, b=1.8, and c=2.7 μm showing single mode propagation; (c) light transmission as a function of the waveguide length at 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectrum of input signal at 1573 nm; (b) spectral broadening corresponding to π phase shift and peak power 40 W in the waveguide

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