Abstract

We report on the progress of bismuth oxide glass holey fibers for nonlinear device applications. The use of micron-scale core diameters has resulted in a very high nonlinearity of 1100 W-1 km-1 at 1550 nm. The nonlinear performance of the fibers is evaluated in terms of a newly introduced figure-of-merit for nonlinear device applications. Anomalous dispersion at 1550 nm has been predicted and experimentally confirmed by soliton self-frequency shifting. In addition, we demonstrate the fusion-splicing of a bismuth holey fiber to silica fibers, which has resulted in reduced coupling loss and robust single mode guiding at 1550 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. T.M. Monro and D.J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibres: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4 (2003) 175.
    [Crossref]
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, Inc.,1995).
  3. V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) 1427.
    [Crossref]
  4. V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1520–1525 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.
  7. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.
  8. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.
  9. P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD
  10. N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, “Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904–1908 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.
  12. K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)
  15. A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. GrunerNielsen, and O. A. Levring, “Direct continuous-wave measurement of n(2) in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 mu m,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1966–1968 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  17. J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
    [Crossref]

2003 (4)

T.M. Monro and D.J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibres: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4 (2003) 175.
[Crossref]

V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) 1427.
[Crossref]

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1520–1525 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-25-1520.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, “Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904–1908 (1999)
[Crossref]

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, Inc.,1995).

Aozasa, S.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Belardi, W.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

Boskovic, A.

Chernikov, S. V.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Enbutsu, W.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Farr, L.

L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)

Finazzi, V.

V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) 1427.
[Crossref]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Frampton, K.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

Fujiwara, S.

Furusawa, K.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Furusawa, Y.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

George, A. K.

GrunerNielsen, L.

Hanada, T.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Hasegawa, T.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Hewak, D. W.

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Ishikawa, S.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Kanbara, H.

Kashiwada, T.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

Kato, M.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Kiang, K.M.

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Knight, J. C.

Knight, J.C.

L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)

Kogure, T.

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Kumar, V.

Kuroiwa, Y.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Lee, J.H.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

Levring, O. A.

Mangan, B.J.

L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)

Monro, T. M.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

Monro, T.M.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

T.M. Monro and D.J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibres: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4 (2003) 175.
[Crossref]

V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) 1427.
[Crossref]

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Moore, R.

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

Moore, R. C.

Mori, A.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Naganuma, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Nagashima, T.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Nishimura, M.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

Ochiai, K.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Ohara, S.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Oikawa, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

Omenetto, F. G.

Onishi, M.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Reeves, W. H.

Richardson, D. J.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, and D. J. Richardson, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3568–3573 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3568.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

Richardson, D.J.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

T.M. Monro and D.J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibres: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4 (2003) 175.
[Crossref]

V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20 (2003) 1427.
[Crossref]

Roberts, P.J.

L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)

Russell, P. S.

Rutt, H. N.

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shikano, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

Shimizugawa, Y.

Sugimoto, N.

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, “Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904–1908 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Taira, K.

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

Tanabe, S.

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

Tanaka, K.

Taylor, A. J.

Taylor, J. R.

Trucknott, J.

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yusoff, Z.

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

C. R. Physique (1)

T.M. Monro and D.J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibres: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4 (2003) 175.
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Kikuchi, K. Taira, and N. Sugimoto, “Highly nonlinear bismuth oxide-based glass fibers for all-optical signal processing,” Electron. Lett. 38, 166–167 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Trucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, and H. N. Rutt, “Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, “Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1385–1391 (1999)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. (1)

J.H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold”, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, Inc.,1995).

A. Mori, K. Shikano, W. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1 km-1,” presented at ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, 5–9 Sep 2004, Th3.3.6.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, K. Frampton, R. Moore, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide-based glass holey fiber,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper ThA4.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” presented at OFC 2004, Los Angeles, California, USA,2004, paper PDP26.

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Kogure, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, T.M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A spliced and connectorized highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive bismuth-oxide glass holey fiber,” presented at CLEO 2004, San Francisco, California, USA,2004, paper CTuD

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Sugimoto, K. Ochiai, S. Ohara, Y. Furusawa, S. Ito, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Fusion spliceable and high efficient Bi2O3-based EDF for short length and broadband application pumped at 1480 nm,” presented at OFC 2001, Anaheim, California, USA,2001, paper TuI5.

L. Farr, J.C. Knight, B.J. Mangan, and P.J. Roberts, “ Low loss photonic crystal fibre, “ ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–12 Sep 2002, PD1.3 (Postdeadline)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of HF #3 with 2.1 μm core and (b) predicted mode profile superimposed on the index profile of HF #1 with 2.7 μm core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured propagation loss of the HFs made from three individual preforms, (b) measured nonlinear phase shift as a function of input power yielding γ = 1100 W-1 km-1 from the slope of the linear fit for HF #3 with 1.8 μm core, and (c) calculated nonlinearity for a bismuth glass air-suspended rod and measured fiber nonlinearities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Raman soliton spectra at the output of 53cm of the 1.8 μm core HF with γ=1100 W-1 km-1 for different input pulse energies, (b) optical microscope image of bismuth HF to silica fiber splice and (c) IR image of the near field pattern of the connectorized HF.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber loss, effective nonlinear coefficient γ and effective fiber lengths at 1550 nm for highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted silica fiber (HN-DSF); for silica, lead silicate (SF57) and bismuth glass HFs and for conventional fibers (CFs) from bismuth glasses.

Equations (3)

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γ = ( 2 π λ ) × ( n 2 A eff ) .
Δφ ( 2 P in ) = γ × L eff ,
L eff = [ 1 exp ( α × L ) ] α

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