Abstract

In this paper we present a novel approach to monitoring the deformations of a steel plate’s surface during various types of laser processing, e.g., engraving, marking, cutting, bending, and welding. The measuring system is based on a laser triangulation principle, where the laser projector generates multiple lines simultaneously. This enables us to measure the shape of the surface with a high sampling rate (80 Hz with our camera) and high accuracy (±7 μm). The measurements of steel-plate deformations for plates of different thickness and with different illumination patterns are presented graphically and in an animation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Kovalenko and R. Zhuk, “Systemized approach in laser industrial systems design,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 149 (1–3), 553–556 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).
  3. M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Zhang and P. Michaleris, “Investigation of Lagrangian and Eulerian finite element methods for modeling the laser forming process,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40(4), 383–405 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Bao and Y. L. Yao, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. 123(1), 53–61 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. Jitae Kim and S. J. Na, “Feedback control for 2D free curve laser forming,” Optics & Laser Technology In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 26 April 2004.
  7. G. Thomson and M. Pridham, “A feedback control system for laser forming,” Mechatronics 7(5), 429–441 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. H.S. Hsieh and J. Lin, “Thermal-mechanical analysis on the transient deformation during pulsed laser forming,” International J. Machine Tools and Manufacture  44 (2–3), 191–199 (2004).
  10. Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).
  11. M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Curless, New Methods for Surface Reconstruction from Range Images (Stanford - Ph.D. Dissertation1997).
  13. DIN 17222, “Kaltgewalzte Stahlbänder für Federen,” Deutsche Normen August 1997.
  14. D. Bračun, M. Jezeršek, and J. Možina, “Apparatus for determining size and shape of a foot,” PCT patent nr. WO2004037085 (2004).

2004 (3)

V. Kovalenko and R. Zhuk, “Systemized approach in laser industrial systems design,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 149 (1–3), 553–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang and P. Michaleris, “Investigation of Lagrangian and Eulerian finite element methods for modeling the laser forming process,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40(4), 383–405 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.S. Hsieh and J. Lin, “Thermal-mechanical analysis on the transient deformation during pulsed laser forming,” International J. Machine Tools and Manufacture  44 (2–3), 191–199 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Bao and Y. L. Yao, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. 123(1), 53–61 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
[Crossref]

An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Thomson and M. Pridham, “A feedback control system for laser forming,” Mechatronics 7(5), 429–441 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bao, J.

J. Bao and Y. L. Yao, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. 123(1), 53–61 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bracun, D.

D. Bračun, M. Jezeršek, and J. Možina, “Apparatus for determining size and shape of a foot,” PCT patent nr. WO2004037085 (2004).

Curless, B.

B. Curless, New Methods for Surface Reconstruction from Range Images (Stanford - Ph.D. Dissertation1997).

Dearden, G.

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

Dove, M.

M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Edwardson, S.P.

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

French, P.

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

Hand, D. P.

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, H.S.

H.S. Hsieh and J. Lin, “Thermal-mechanical analysis on the transient deformation during pulsed laser forming,” International J. Machine Tools and Manufacture  44 (2–3), 191–199 (2004).

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).

Jezeršek, M.

D. Bračun, M. Jezeršek, and J. Možina, “Apparatus for determining size and shape of a foot,” PCT patent nr. WO2004037085 (2004).

Jones, J. D. C.

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kermanidis, Th. B.

An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, Jitae

Jitae Kim and S. J. Na, “Feedback control for 2D free curve laser forming,” Optics & Laser Technology In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 26 April 2004.

Kosel, F.

M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kovacevic, R.

Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).

Kovalenko, V.

V. Kovalenko and R. Zhuk, “Systemized approach in laser industrial systems design,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 149 (1–3), 553–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kyrsanidi, An. K.

An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
[Crossref]

Labudovic, M.

Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).

Lin, J.

H.S. Hsieh and J. Lin, “Thermal-mechanical analysis on the transient deformation during pulsed laser forming,” International J. Machine Tools and Manufacture  44 (2–3), 191–199 (2004).

Magee, J.

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

Michaleris, P.

L. Zhang and P. Michaleris, “Investigation of Lagrangian and Eulerian finite element methods for modeling the laser forming process,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40(4), 383–405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moore, A. J.

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

Možina, J.

M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Bračun, M. Jezeršek, and J. Možina, “Apparatus for determining size and shape of a foot,” PCT patent nr. WO2004037085 (2004).

Na, S. J.

Jitae Kim and S. J. Na, “Feedback control for 2D free curve laser forming,” Optics & Laser Technology In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 26 April 2004.

Pantelakis, Sp. G.

An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pridham, M.

G. Thomson and M. Pridham, “A feedback control system for laser forming,” Mechatronics 7(5), 429–441 (1997).
[Crossref]

Reeves, M.

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomson, G.

G. Thomson and M. Pridham, “A feedback control system for laser forming,” Mechatronics 7(5), 429–441 (1997).
[Crossref]

Watkins, K. G.

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

Yao, Y. L.

J. Bao and Y. L. Yao, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. 123(1), 53–61 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang and P. Michaleris, “Investigation of Lagrangian and Eulerian finite element methods for modeling the laser forming process,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40(4), 383–405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhuk, R.

V. Kovalenko and R. Zhuk, “Systemized approach in laser industrial systems design,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 149 (1–3), 553–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. (1)

J. Bao and Y. L. Yao, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME Trans. J. Manufacturing Sci. Eng. 123(1), 53–61 (2001).
[Crossref]

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (1)

L. Zhang and P. Michaleris, “Investigation of Lagrangian and Eulerian finite element methods for modeling the laser forming process,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40(4), 383–405 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Mat. Processing Technol. (2)

V. Kovalenko and R. Zhuk, “Systemized approach in laser industrial systems design,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 149 (1–3), 553–556 (2004).
[Crossref]

An. K. Kyrsanidi, Th. B. Kermanidis, and Sp. G. Pantelakis, “Numerical and experimental investigation of the laser forming process,” J. Mat. Processing Technol. 87(1–3), 281–290 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Dove, J. Možina, and F. Kosel, “Optimizing the final deformation of a circular plate illuminated by a short laser pulse,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 644–649 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mechatronics (1)

G. Thomson and M. Pridham, “A feedback control system for laser forming,” Mechatronics 7(5), 429–441 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Reeves, A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dynamic shape measurement system for laser materials processing,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2923–2929 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

B. Curless, New Methods for Surface Reconstruction from Range Images (Stanford - Ph.D. Dissertation1997).

DIN 17222, “Kaltgewalzte Stahlbänder für Federen,” Deutsche Normen August 1997.

D. Bračun, M. Jezeršek, and J. Možina, “Apparatus for determining size and shape of a foot,” PCT patent nr. WO2004037085 (2004).

K. G. Watkins, S.P. Edwardson, J. Magee, G. Dearden, and P. French, “Laser Forming of Aerospace Alloys,” Proceedings of the 2001 Aerospace Congress SAE Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Conference Seattle (2001).

H.S. Hsieh and J. Lin, “Thermal-mechanical analysis on the transient deformation during pulsed laser forming,” International J. Machine Tools and Manufacture  44 (2–3), 191–199 (2004).

Z. Hu, R. Kovacevic, and M. Labudovic, “Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet forming,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture  42(13), 1427–1439 (2002).

Jitae Kim and S. J. Na, “Feedback control for 2D free curve laser forming,” Optics & Laser Technology In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 26 April 2004.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: GIF (2740 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (3335 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plate deformation during laser-spot illumination. The beam diameter was 200 μm for the first row, and 1 mm for the second row. The illumination time was 2 sec in both cases. The vertical axes in the graphs are magnified 10 times. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plate deformation during laser illumination with a linear beam-propagation path. The image shows the plate deformation during the third scan at the moment when the beam reaches ¾ of the plate width. The vertical axis is magnified 10 times. [Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plate deformation after laser drilling with various frequencies.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Laser-based flattening of a convex-shaped plate deformation.

Metrics