Abstract

We present a new interferometric technique for measuring Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) signals. Heterodyne detection is employed to increase the sensitivity in both CARS and SHG signal detection, which can also be extended to different coherent processes. The exploitation of the mentioned optical nonlinearities for molecular contrast enhancement in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Windeler, and J. Nelson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 182–184 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1546–1548 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. Kartner, X. Li, C. Pitris, E. Ippen, and J. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 111–13 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Divakar Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique,” Opt. Lett. 28, 340–2 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, “Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent,” Acad. Radiol. 9, S52–5 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–9 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–8 (1996).
  11. G. Marowsky and G. Luepke “CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. J.W. Hahn and E.S. Lee “Measurement of nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of various gases by the nonlinear interferometric technique,” JOSA B 12, 1021–27 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Zumbusch, G. Holtorn, and X. Sunney Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–5 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Dermtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1998).
  15. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363–75 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Duncan, J. Reintjes, and T. Manuccia, “Scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscope,” Opt. Lett. 7, 350–2 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. W. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1093–1095 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, “Molecular vibration imaging in the fingerprint region by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a collinear configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1768–1770 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. J.-X. Cheng, Y. Kevin Jia, G. Zheng, and X. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. Journal 83, 502–9 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging: theory and simulations,” In Press, Phys. Rev. Lett.; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311071 (2003).
  21. D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).
  22. J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).
  23. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Optics 42, 5209–5219 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. I. Freund and M. Deutsch, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in Rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. Eisenthal, “Liquid Interfaces Probed by Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 96, 1343–60 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. R. Brown, A. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy.” Opt. Lett. 28, 2207–2209 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. Squier, M. Muller, G. Brakenhoff, and K. Wilson, “Third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 3, 315–24 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-315
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Windeler, and J. Nelson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 182–184 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1546–1548 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Divakar Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique,” Opt. Lett. 28, 340–2 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Optics 42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Brown, A. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy.” Opt. Lett. 28, 2207–2209 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

J.-X. Cheng, Y. Kevin Jia, G. Zheng, and X. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. Journal 83, 502–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, “Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent,” Acad. Radiol. 9, S52–5 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. W. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, “Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1093–1095 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. Holtorn, and X. Sunney Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–5 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Squier, M. Muller, G. Brakenhoff, and K. Wilson, “Third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 3, 315–24 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-315
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

K. Eisenthal, “Liquid Interfaces Probed by Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 96, 1343–60 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–8 (1996).

1995 (1)

J.W. Hahn and E.S. Lee “Measurement of nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of various gases by the nonlinear interferometric technique,” JOSA B 12, 1021–27 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Marowsky and G. Luepke “CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

I. Freund and M. Deutsch, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in Rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1965 (1)

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–9 (1965).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, “Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent,” Acad. Radiol. 9, S52–5 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkovic, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–8 (1996).

Bloembergen, N.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–9 (1965).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1546–1548 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging: theory and simulations,” In Press, Phys. Rev. Lett.; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311071 (2003).

J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G.

Bredfeldt, J.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, R.

Campagnola, P. J.

R. Brown, A. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy.” Opt. Lett. 28, 2207–2209 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Optics 42, 5209–5219 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–9 (1965).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J.-X.

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. Xie, “Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363–75 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.-X. Cheng, Y. Kevin Jia, G. Zheng, and X. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. Journal 83, 502–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

Dermtroeder, W.

W. Dermtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1998).

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund and M. Deutsch, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in Rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Divakar Rao, K.

Dlott, D.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

Drexler, W.

Ducuing, J.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, “Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–9 (1965).
[Crossref]

Duncan, M.

Eisenthal, K.

K. Eisenthal, “Liquid Interfaces Probed by Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 96, 1343–60 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund and M. Deutsch, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in Rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruebele, M.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

Hahn, J.W.

J.W. Hahn and E.S. Lee “Measurement of nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of various gases by the nonlinear interferometric technique,” JOSA B 12, 1021–27 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hambir, S.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

Hashimoto, M.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtorn, G.

A. Zumbusch, G. Holtorn, and X. Sunney Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–5 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hoying, J. B.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, “Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent,” Acad. Radiol. 9, S52–5 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ippen, E.

Izatt, J. A.

Kartner, F.

Kawata, S.

Kevin Jia, Y.

J.-X. Cheng, Y. Kevin Jia, G. Zheng, and X. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. Journal 83, 502–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kitchell, B.

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

Lee, E.S.

J.W. Hahn and E.S. Lee “Measurement of nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of various gases by the nonlinear interferometric technique,” JOSA B 12, 1021–27 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. M.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luepke, G.

G. Marowsky and G. Luepke “CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

Manuccia, T.

Marks, D. L.

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1546–1548 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, J. Bredfeldt, S. Hambir, D. Dlott, B. Kitchell, M. Gruebele, and S. A. Boppart, “Molecular species sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” in Coherence domain optical methods and OCT in biomedicine VII, V.V. Tuchin, J.A. Izatt, and J.G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 9–13 (2003).

D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, “Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging: theory and simulations,” In Press, Phys. Rev. Lett.; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311071 (2003).

J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

Marowsky, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 491–8 (1996).

G. Marowsky and G. Luepke “CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Millard, A.

Morgner, U.

Muller, M.

Nelson, J.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Pitris, C.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. Kartner, X. Li, C. Pitris, E. Ippen, and J. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 111–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafto, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

Reiser, K. M.

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Rubenchik, A. M.

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Schuman, J. S.

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P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen,” Appl. Optics 42, 5209–5219 (2003).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafto, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

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Wang, Y.

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Zhao, Y.

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J.-X. Cheng, Y. Kevin Jia, G. Zheng, and X. Xie, “Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology,” Biophys. Journal 83, 502–9 (2002).
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A. Zumbusch, G. Holtorn, and X. Sunney Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–5 (1999).
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J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, “Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent,” Acad. Radiol. 9, S52–5 (2002).
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S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–5 (1998).
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J. Bredfeldt, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, S. Hambir, and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering heterodyne interferometry,” Submitted; LANL E-print arXive http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311057 (2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup used to generate the Stokes and the Pump excitation fields. DPSS, diode-pumped solid-state laser; Regen, regenerative amplifier; OPA, optical parametric amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of the interferometric CARS measurement system. DM, dichroic mirror; BS, beamsplitter; M, mirror; HPF, high-pass-filter; PH, pin-hole; PMT photomultiplier tube; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interferogram of the pump beam detected at the beamsplitter BS2 of the setup shown in Fig. 2. The envelope of the interferogram was fitted using the modulus of the degree of the coherence function. In the inset is shown a detail of the interference pattern and its fit by the real part of the degree of coherence function (open circles: experimental data; solid line: fit). L c is the coherence length of the pulse. λ PUMP is the wavelength of the Pump signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Log-log plots of the intensity of the CARS signal as a function of (a) the intensity of the Pump field and (b) the intensity of the Stokes field (solid lines, curve fitting). The dotted line in (a) has a slope of 2. “m” is the angular coefficient of the solid lines [22].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CARS interferogram detected at the beamsplitter BS2 of the setup shown in Fig.2. The envelope of the interferogram was fitted using the modulus of the degree of the coherence function. In the inset is shown a detail of the interference pattern and its fit by the real part of the degree of coherence function (open circles: experimental data; solid line: fit). L c is the coherence length of the pulse. λ AS is the wavelength of the CARS signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup of the interferometric SHG measurement system. Two different SHG crystals (Type I) were inserted in the two arms of the interferometers. BS, beamsplitter; M, mirror; IF, interference filter; PH, pin-hole; PMT, photomultiplier tube; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SHG interferogram detected at the beamsplitter BS2 of the setup shown in Fig.6. The interferogram was recorded as the pathlength of the reference arm was scanned. The modulus of the degree of the coherence function was used to fit the envelope of the interferogram. The inset shows a detail of the interference pattern and its fit by the real part of the degree of coherence function (open circles: experimental data; solid line: fit). L c is the coherence length of the pulse. λ SHG is the wavelength of the SHG signal.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ¯ = ε 0 ( χ ( 1 ) · E ¯ + χ ( 2 ) : E ¯ E ¯ + χ ( 3 ) E ¯ E ¯ E ¯ + )
γ ( τ ) = exp ( i τ ω 0 i δ ω 2 τ 2 4 )
τ c = + γ ( τ ) 2 d τ

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