Abstract

A low polarization dependent, high diffraction efficiency grating for wavelength demultiplexer is proposed, manufactured by standard crystallographic etching of Si surface. Light is incident and diffracted inside the wafer, which is covered with reflecting metal. Optimized groove form results in a flat spectral response for TE and TM polarizations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.-P. Laude, Le multiplexage de Longueurs d�??Onde (Masson, Paris, 1992)
  2. E. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997)
  3. M. Sabeva, E. Popov, and L. Tsonev: �??Reflection gratings in the visible region: efficiency in non-polarized light,�?? Opt. Commun. 100, 39-42 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yokomori: �??Dielectric surface relief gratings with high diffraction efficiency,�?? Appl. Opt., 23, 2303-2310 (1984)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Popov, B. Bozhkov, and M. Nevière: �??Almost perfect blazing by photonic crystal rod grating,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 2417-2422 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  6. RGL Cat#35-53-*-466 <a href="www.gratinglab.com">(www.gratinglab.com).</a>
  7. J. Hoose, �??Optical diffraction grating structure with reduced polarization sensitivity,�?? US patent no. 6,487,019 (2002)
  8. M. Nevière and E. Popov, Light Propagation in Periodic Media, Differential Theory and Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003
  9. J. Hoose, R. Frankel, and E. Popov, �??Diffractive structure for high-dispersion WDM applications,�?? US patent no. 6,496,622 (2002)

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

M. Sabeva, E. Popov, and L. Tsonev: �??Reflection gratings in the visible region: efficiency in non-polarized light,�?? Opt. Commun. 100, 39-42 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-P. Laude, Le multiplexage de Longueurs d�??Onde (Masson, Paris, 1992)

E. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997)

RGL Cat#35-53-*-466 <a href="www.gratinglab.com">(www.gratinglab.com).</a>

J. Hoose, �??Optical diffraction grating structure with reduced polarization sensitivity,�?? US patent no. 6,487,019 (2002)

M. Nevière and E. Popov, Light Propagation in Periodic Media, Differential Theory and Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003

J. Hoose, R. Frankel, and E. Popov, �??Diffractive structure for high-dispersion WDM applications,�?? US patent no. 6,496,622 (2002)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured profile of the echelette grating (master no. 1117 ruled by Richardson Grating Laboratory, Spectronic Instruments, Inc., Thermo Optek Co.).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency of three different echelette gratings with profiles presented in the inset. 600 gr/mm, measurements at 8° angular deviation (A.D.) (a) TE polarization, (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM picture of a Si grating with triangular profile and flat top region.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical (a) and experimental (b) efficiency of a Si grating covered with Au layer and measured from the wafer side. Period 0.4 µm, flat region 148 nm, angle of incidence inside the wafer 33.7°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral variation of the polarization difference (TE minus TM efficiency).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean efficiency and mean polarization difference within the spectral region 1.52–1.57 µm as a function of the flat region width of the profile.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematical representation and general view of the device.

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