Abstract

We developed a new algorithm that fits optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals as a function of depth to a general theoretical OCT model which takes into account multiple scattering effects. With use of this algorithm, it was possible to extract both the scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor from a particular region of interest in an OCT image. The extraction algorithm was evaluated against measurements from an integrating sphere on a set of tissue phantoms and yielded valid results. Finally, a preliminary ex vivo OCT investigation on human aortic specimen indicated that the algorithm may contribute importantly to differentiation between normal and atherosclerotic arteries. We conclude that this algorithm may facilitate tissue characterization by OCT.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swartling, J. S. Dam, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffuse reflectance measurement systems for determination of biomedical optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4612–4620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russel, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Royston, R. S. Poston, and S. A. Prahl, “Optical properties of scattering and absorbing materials used in the development of optical phantoms at 1064 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

Andersen, C. B.

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Andersen, P. E.

L. Thrane, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, “Analysis of optical coherence tomography systems based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484–490 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Yura, L. Thrane, and P. E. Andersen, “Closed form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function for diffuse reflection and small angle scattering in a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2464–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Andersson-Engels, S.

Apolonski, A.

Aretz, H. T.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY1983).

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. C.

C. C. Cheng and M. G. Raymer, “Propagation of transverse optical coherence in random multiple-scattering media,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dam, J. S.

DeJoseph Gauthier, D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

Fayad, Z.

Z. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89, 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frosz, M. H.

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fuster, V.

Z. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89, 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, P. R.

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY1983).

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, T. M.

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Kamensky, V. A.

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, J. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Knüttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R. V.

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Levitz, D.

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutomirski, R. F.

MacNeill, B. D.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poston, R. S.

D. D. Royston, R. S. Poston, and S. A. Prahl, “Optical properties of scattering and absorbing materials used in the development of optical phantoms at 1064 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, R. H.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Prahl, S. A.

D. D. Royston, R. S. Poston, and S. A. Prahl, “Optical properties of scattering and absorbing materials used in the development of optical phantoms at 1064 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, Inverse Adding-Doubling Software. 1999. http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/index.html

Pross, D. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

C. C. Cheng and M. G. Raymer, “Propagation of transverse optical coherence in random multiple-scattering media,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Royston, D. D.

D. D. Royston, R. S. Poston, and S. A. Prahl, “Optical properties of scattering and absorbing materials used in the development of optical phantoms at 1064 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. S. J.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakhova, N. M.

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA1986).

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, “Analysis of optical coherence tomography systems based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484–490 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Yura, L. Thrane, and P. E. Andersen, “Closed form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function for diffuse reflection and small angle scattering in a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2464–2474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

Turchin, E. V.

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Unterhuber, A.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Weissman, N. J.

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Circ. Res. (1)

Z. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89, 305–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heart (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, M. Shishkov, C. R. Kauffman, D. DeJoseph Gauthier, B. D. MacNeill, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and I. K. Jang, “Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Heart 89, 317–321 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Am Coll Cardiol (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. H. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 604–609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. D. Royston, R. S. Poston, and S. A. Prahl, “Optical properties of scattering and absorbing materials used in the development of optical phantoms at 1064 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, and D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Physics (1)

N. M. Shakhova, V. M. Gelikonov, V. A. Kamensky, R. V. Kuranov, and E. V. Turchin, “Clinical aspects of the endoscopic optical coherence tomography: a methods for improving the diagnostics efficiency,” Laser Physics 12, 23–32 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. C. Cheng and M. G. Raymer, “Propagation of transverse optical coherence in random multiple-scattering media,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY1983).

S. A. Prahl, Inverse Adding-Doubling Software. 1999. http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/index.html

D. Levitz, C. B. Andersen, M. H. Frosz, L. Thrane, P. R. Hansen, T. M. Jørgensen, and P. E. Andersen “Assessing blood vessel abnormality via extracting scattering properties from OCT images” in European Conference in Biomedical Optics (ECBO), W. Drexler, ed. Proc. SPIE5140, 12–19 (2003).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The OCT system. The optical circulator and a second detector (dashed line) were only used in the first part of the study. PLD: programmable logic device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A schematic representation of the principles of the extraction algorithm. The sample arm geometry and input parameter values from our OCT setup are shown in (A). These parameters were used to generate an image (B) and were also employed during curve fitting (C-D). A transverse ROI was selected in (B, inset), averaged, smoothed, and plotted in (C). The axial pixels of the ROI were chosen in (C, inset), and shown as points in (D). zROI represents the probing depth within the region of interest in (D). The fit was performed on the resulting data-points using µs and θrms initial value guesses as additional input. The algorithm returned µs, θrms, the fit’s error estimates, and a plot comparing the fit to the data points (D).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A comparison of µs values (means ± standard deviation) obtained from measurements on tissue phantoms with OCT extractions (green) and the integrating sphere (IS, in red). Note a step wise increase on two separate sets of 3 phantoms purposely prepared to exhibit such an increase. Details about phantom nomenclature can be found in Ref. [19].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A comparison of geff value (means ± standard deviations) from OCT extractions (points) and the Mie calculation (line). Overlap in results is seen for every phantom. Details regarding phantom nomenclature can be found in Ref. [19].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Correlation of raw OCT images (A, C, E, and G) and histopathology (B, D, F, and H). Normal intima labeled ‘I’ in (A-B). Lipid-rich lesion (C-D), with a lipid pool marked ‘LP’. Fibrous plaque (E-F), with fibrous area marked ‘F’. Fibrocalcific lesion (G-H), with the calcifications denoted ‘C’. Rupture artifacts caused by the decalcifying process are clearly seen in (H). The arrows represent the intima in (A-F) and the fitting region in (G-H), respectively. Bars=500 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distributions of µs (A) and geff (B) for normal arteries and lipid-rich, fibrous, and fibrocalcific atherosclerotic plaques, respectively. In (A), µs for normal samples (striped) were centered between 15 and 40 mm-1, but were centered at lower values for lipid-rich (green) and fibrocalcific (blue) plaques, and were randomly distributed for fibrous plaques (red). In (B), geff values were generally higher in normal intimas than in atherosclerotic lesions.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w H 2 = w 0 2 ( A B f ) 2 + ( B k w 0 ) 2 ,
Ψ ( z ) = exp ( 2 μ s z ) + 4 exp ( μ s z ) [ 1 exp ( μ s z ) ] 1 + w S 2 w H 2 + [ 1 exp ( μ s z ) ] 2 w H 2 w S 2 .
w S 2 = w 0 2 ( A B f ) 2 + ( B k w 0 ) 2 + ( 2 B k ρ 0 ( z ) ) 2 ,
ρ 0 ( z ) = 3 μ s z λ π θ rms ( nB z ) ,

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