Abstract

An in vitro study was performed to evaluate noninvasive spectroscopic measurement of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in skin collagen. A porcine dermis preparation was incubated in solutions simulating normal and hyperglycemic conditions. The AGEs kinetics of increase were determined by HPLC and GC/MS assays, and compared to near-infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet/visible fluorescence skin spectra. Multivariate analysis indicated that, although NIR did not discriminate between collagen samples exposed to different glucose concentrations, fluorescence changes were readily detected and correlated strongly with skin concentration of AGEs. These results suggest that measurement of skin AGEs by fluorescence spectroscopy may be useful for detection and diagnosis of type II diabetes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

P. Hogan, T. Dall, and P. Nikolov, American Diabetes Association, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002,” Diabetes Care 26, 917–932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

American Diabetes Association Position Statement, “Screening for Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 26, S21–S24 (2003).

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S Yeh, O.S. Khalil, C.F. Hanna, and S. Kantor, “Near-infrared thermo-optical response of the localized reflectance of intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 534–544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M.G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, and M.S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentagling the effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D.L. Price, P.M. Rhett, S.R. Thorpe, and J.W. Baynes, “Chelating activity of Advanced Glycation End-product inhibitors,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48967–48972 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.C. Finlay, D.L. Conover, E.L. Hull, and T.H. Foster, “Prophyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance-dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.I. Harris and R.C. Eastman, “Early detection of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus: a US perspective,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 16, 230–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.M. Engelgau, K.M.V. Narayan, and W.H. Herman, “Screening for Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 23, 1563–1580 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilles, G. Zonios, R.R. Anderson, and N. Kollilas, “Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M.G. Müller, J. Wu, and M.S. Feld, “Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 25: 1451–1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

L. Brancaleon, G. Lin, and N. Kollias, “The in vivo fluorescence of tryptophan moieties in human skin increases with UV exposure and is a marker for epidermal proliferation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 977–982 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.M. Gardner, S.L. Jacques, and A.J. Welch, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of tissue: recovery of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 35:1780–1792 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, M.S. Feld, and R.P. Rava, “Analytical model for extracting intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3585–3595 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

B. Buckingham and K.M. Reiser, “Relationship between the Content of Lysyl Oxidase-dependent Crosslinks in Skin Collagen, Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, and Long-Term Complications in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 86, 1046–1054 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D.M. Haaland and E.V. Thomas, “Partial least-squares methods for spectral analyses. 1. Relation to other quantitative calibration methods and the extraction of qualitative information,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1193–1202 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abiko, A.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abiko, T.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahola, K.

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Airaksinen, K.E.Juhani

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akaike, H.

H. Akaike, “Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle,” Proc 2nd Int’l Symp Information Theory, 267–281, (1973).

Anderson, R.R.

R. Gilles, G. Zonios, R.R. Anderson, and N. Kollilas, “Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bailie, K.E.

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bank, R.A.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bautista, O.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baynes, J.W.

D.L. Price, P.M. Rhett, S.R. Thorpe, and J.W. Baynes, “Chelating activity of Advanced Glycation End-product inhibitors,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48967–48972 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, J.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, B.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijlsam, J.W.J.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bombardier, C.

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouter, L.M.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon, G. Lin, and N. Kollias, “The in vivo fluorescence of tryptophan moieties in human skin increases with UV exposure and is a marker for epidermal proliferation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 977–982 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C.D.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Buckingham, B.

B. Buckingham and K.M. Reiser, “Relationship between the Content of Lysyl Oxidase-dependent Crosslinks in Skin Collagen, Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, and Long-Term Complications in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 86, 1046–1054 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckingham, B.A.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrd-Holt, D.D.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellano, A.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleary, P.A.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conover, D.L.

J.C. Finlay, D.L. Conover, E.L. Hull, and T.H. Foster, “Prophyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance-dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costin, G.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowie, C.C.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, N.H.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daahms, W.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dall, T.

P. Hogan, T. Dall, and P. Nikolov, American Diabetes Association, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002,” Diabetes Care 26, 917–932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, H.T.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

DeGroot, J.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominiczak, M.H.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.A.

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, D.G.

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastman, R.C.

M.I. Harris and R.C. Eastman, “Early detection of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus: a US perspective,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 16, 230–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, M.S.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M.N.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Engelgau, M.M.

M.M. Engelgau, K.M.V. Narayan, and W.H. Herman, “Screening for Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 23, 1563–1580 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eppstein, J.A.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, J.W.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M.S.

Finlay, A.Y.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J.C.

J.C. Finlay, D.L. Conover, E.L. Hull, and T.H. Foster, “Prophyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance-dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flegal, K.M.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, C.M.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Fogarty, J.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T.H.

J.C. Finlay, D.L. Conover, E.L. Hull, and T.H. Foster, “Prophyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance-dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frier, B.M.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friesen, D.

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, C.M.

Geladi, P.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Genuth, S.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

M.G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, and M.S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentagling the effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, R.

R. Gilles, G. Zonios, R.R. Anderson, and N. Kollilas, “Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gladman, D.

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, D.E.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, A.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, R. Sicree, A. Green, and H. King, “Global burden of diabetes mellitus in the year 2000,” in Global Burden of Disease 2000 (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Grootenhuis, P.A.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haaland, D.M.

D.M. Haaland and E.V. Thomas, “Partial least-squares methods for spectral analyses. 1. Relation to other quantitative calibration methods and the extraction of qualitative information,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1193–1202 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haiber, S.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Hanna, A.

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, C.F.

S Yeh, O.S. Khalil, C.F. Hanna, and S. Kantor, “Near-infrared thermo-optical response of the localized reflectance of intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 534–544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, W.

W. Hanna, D. Friesen, C. Bombardier, D. Gladman, and A. Hanna, “Pathologic features of diabetic thick skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16, 546–553 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, T.

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harris, M.I.

M.I. Harris and R.C. Eastman, “Early detection of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus: a US perspective,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 16, 230–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heine, R.J.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, H.M.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Herman, W.H.

M.M. Engelgau, K.M.V. Narayan, and W.H. Herman, “Screening for Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 23, 1563–1580 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogan, P.

P. Hogan, T. Dall, and P. Nikolov, American Diabetes Association, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002,” Diabetes Care 26, 917–932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holman, R.R.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Horiuchi, S.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huberty, C.

C. Huberty, Applied Discriminant Analysis, (J Wiley and Sons, NY, 1994).

Hull, E.L.

J.C. Finlay, D.L. Conover, E.L. Hull, and T.H. Foster, “Prophyrin bleaching and PDT-induced spectral changes are irradiance-dependent in ALA-sensitized normal rat skin in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 54–63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Ignotz, K.D.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ihrig, D.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Ikaheimo, M.J.

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishiko, S.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S.L.

Jones, S.K.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kantor, S.

S Yeh, O.S. Khalil, C.F. Hanna, and S. Kantor, “Near-infrared thermo-optical response of the localized reflectance of intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 534–544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, F.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keens, T.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenny, D.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, O.S.

S Yeh, O.S. Khalil, C.F. Hanna, and S. Kantor, “Near-infrared thermo-optical response of the localized reflectance of intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 534–544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, H.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, R. Sicree, A. Green, and H. King, “Global burden of diabetes mellitus in the year 2000,” in Global Burden of Disease 2000 (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Klein, R.

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knuiman, M.W.

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kollias, N.

L. Brancaleon, G. Lin, and N. Kollias, “The in vivo fluorescence of tryptophan moieties in human skin increases with UV exposure and is a marker for epidermal proliferation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 977–982 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollilas, N.

R. Gilles, G. Zonios, R.R. Anderson, and N. Kollilas, “Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kostense, P.J.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krantz, B.S.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lachin, J.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landing, B.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, M.

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Licht, M.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Lin, G.

L. Brancaleon, G. Lin, and N. Kollias, “The in vivo fluorescence of tryptophan moieties in human skin increases with UV exposure and is a marker for epidermal proliferation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 977–982 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindholm-Sethson, B.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Linnaluoto, M.K.

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lithner, F.

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Little, R.R.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, J.R.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lund-Andersen, H.

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, T.J.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.M.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Martens, H.

H. Martens and T. Naes, Multivariate Calibration, (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1989).

Maynard, J.D.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

McCance, D.R.

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCance, R.

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCruden, D.C.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melling, M.

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, E.J.

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, L.C.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Moll, C.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Monnier, V.M.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooy, J.M.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M.G.

M.G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, and M.S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentagling the effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.G.

Naes, T.

H. Martens and T. Naes, Multivariate Calibration, (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1989).

Narayan, K.M.V.

M.M. Engelgau, K.M.V. Narayan, and W.H. Herman, “Screening for Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 23, 1563–1580 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, H.A.W.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Nikolov, P.

P. Hogan, T. Dall, and P. Nikolov, American Diabetes Association, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002,” Diabetes Care 26, 917–932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A.

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, J.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

NystrÖm, J.

P. Geladi, J. NystrÖm, J.W. Eriksson, A. Nilsson, F. Lithner, and B. Lindholm-Sethson, “A multivariate NIR study of skin alterations in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 8, 217–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ollmar, S.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, O.

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Percy-Robb, I.W.

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiler, W.

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popp-Snijders, C.

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, D.L.

D.L. Price, P.M. Rhett, S.R. Thorpe, and J.W. Baynes, “Chelating activity of Advanced Glycation End-product inhibitors,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48967–48972 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, J.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, R.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Rava, R.P.

Reihsner, R.

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reiser, K.M.

B. Buckingham and K.M. Reiser, “Relationship between the Content of Lysyl Oxidase-dependent Crosslinks in Skin Collagen, Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, and Long-Term Complications in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 86, 1046–1054 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhett, P.M.

D.L. Price, P.M. Rhett, S.R. Thorpe, and J.W. Baynes, “Chelating activity of Advanced Glycation End-product inhibitors,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48967–48972 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roe, T.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roglic, G.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, R. Sicree, A. Green, and H. King, “Global burden of diabetes mellitus in the year 2000,” in Global Burden of Disease 2000 (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Ross, I.S.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Ryhanen, L.J.

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmela, P.I.

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, M.A.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandborg, C.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sell, D.R.

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, J.N.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sicree, R.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, R. Sicree, A. Green, and H. King, “Global burden of diabetes mellitus in the year 2000,” in Global Burden of Disease 2000 (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Stenberg, L.

J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J.W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multifrequency bioimpedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 4, 324–9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stücker, M.

H.M. Heise, S. Haiber, D. Ihrig, M. Licht, M. Stücker, and C. Moll, “Non-Invasive Diabetes Screening By Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 68, 2003.

Takeda, M.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

TeKoppele, J.M.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theil, P. Koefoed

P. Koefoed Theil, T. Hansen, M. Larsen, O. Pedersen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Lens autofluorescence is increased in newly diagnosed patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia 39, 1524–1527 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E.V.

D.M. Haaland and E.V. Thomas, “Partial least-squares methods for spectral analyses. 1. Relation to other quantitative calibration methods and the extraction of qualitative information,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1193–1202 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, S.R.

D.L. Price, P.M. Rhett, S.R. Thorpe, and J.W. Baynes, “Chelating activity of Advanced Glycation End-product inhibitors,” J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48967–48972 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, S.R. Thorpe, K.E. Bailie, T.J. Lyons, D.R. McCance, and J.W. Baynes, “Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2463–2469 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McCance, D.G. Dyer, J.A. Dunn, K.E. Bailie, S.R. Thorpe, J.W. Baynes, and T.J. Lyons, “Maillard reaction products and theor relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2470–2478 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, R.C.

S.M. Manley, L.C. Meyer, H.A.W. Neil, I.S. Ross, R.C. Turner, and R.R. Holman, “UKPDS 6 Complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and their association with different clinical and biologic risk factors,” Diabetes Research 13, 1–11 (1990)

Udell, R.

C.M. Fleming, H.T. Davis, R. Ratner, C.D. Brown, M.N. Ediger, E.L. Hull, R. Udell, and J.D. Maynard, “Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Diabetes Based on Noninvasive Skin Measurements,” poster presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society, San Francisco, CA, November 6–8, 2003.

Uitto, J.

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verzijl, N.

N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, S.R. Thorpe, R.A. Bank, J.N. Shaw, T.J. Lyons, J.W.J. Bijlsam, F.P.J.G. Lafeber, J.W. Baynes, and J.M. TeKoppele, “Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products,” J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39027–39031 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vries, H. de

J.M. Mooy, P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, and R.J. Heine, “Intra-individual variation of glucose, specific insulin and proinsulin concentrations measured by two oral glucose tolerance tests in a general Caucasian population: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetologia 39, 298–305 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welborn, T.A.

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A.J.

Wiedmeyer, H.M.

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, S.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, R. Sicree, A. Green, and H. King, “Global burden of diabetes mellitus in the year 2000,” in Global Burden of Disease 2000 (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Wu, J.

Yeh, S

S Yeh, O.S. Khalil, C.F. Hanna, and S. Kantor, “Near-infrared thermo-optical response of the localized reflectance of intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin,” J. Biomed. Optics 8, 534–544 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida A, A.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida A, “Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361–366 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, B.S. Krantz, J.A. Eppstein, K.D. Ignotz, M.A. Samuels, J.R. Long, and J. Price, “Development of a noninvasive diabetes screening device using the ratio of fluorescence to Rayleigh scattered light,” J. Biomed. Optics. 1, 280–288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

M.G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, and M.S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentagling the effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M.G. Müller, J. Wu, and M.S. Feld, “Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 25: 1451–1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G.

R. Gilles, G. Zonios, R.R. Anderson, and N. Kollilas, “Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D.M. Haaland and E.V. Thomas, “Partial least-squares methods for spectral analyses. 1. Relation to other quantitative calibration methods and the extraction of qualitative information,” Anal. Chem. 60, 1193–1202 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Cardiovasc. Res. (1)

K.E.Juhani Airaksinen, P.I. Salmela, M.K. Linnaluoto, M.J. Ikaheimo, K. Ahola, and L.J. Ryhanen, “Diminished arterial elasticity in diabetes: association with fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products in collagen,” Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 942–945 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Biomech. (1)

R. Reihsner, M. Melling, W. Pfeiler, and E.J. Menzel, “Alterations of biochemical and two-dimensional biomechanical properties of human skin in diabetes mellitus as compared to effects of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation,” Clin. Biomech. 15, 379–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diabetes (1)

V.M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D.R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Daahms, P.A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, and the DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group, “Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes 48, 870–880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (7)

P. Hogan, T. Dall, and P. Nikolov, American Diabetes Association, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002,” Diabetes Care 26, 917–932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.I. Harris, K.M. Flegal, C.C. Cowie, M.S. Eberhardt, D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, H.M. Wiedmeyer, and D.D. Byrd-Holt, “Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults, The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Diabetes Care 21, 518–24 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.I. Harris, R. Klein, T.A. Welborn, and M.W. Knuiman, “Onset of NIDDM Occurs at least 4–7 yr before clinical diagnosis,” Diabetes Care 15, 814–819 (1992).
[CrossRef]

American Diabetes Association Position Statement, “Screening for Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 26, S21–S24 (2003).

M.M. Engelgau, K.M.V. Narayan, and W.H. Herman, “Screening for Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 23, 1563–1580 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.H. Dominiczak, J. Bell, N.H. Cox, D.C. McCruden, S.K. Jones, A.Y. Finlay, I.W. Percy-Robb, and B.M. Frier, “Increased collagen-linked fluorescence in skin of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care 13, 468–72 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.A. Buckingham, J. Uitto, C. Sandborg, T. Keens, T. Roe, G. Costin, F. Kaufman, B. Bernstein, B. Landing, and A. Castellano, “Scleroderma-like changes in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Clinical and biochemical studies,” Diabetes Care 7, 163–169 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. (1)

M.I. Harris and R.C. Eastman, “Early detection of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus: a US perspective,” Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 16, 230–236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diabetes Research (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Accumulation of CML (left) and pentosidine (right) during incubation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mean intra-subject variance of corrected fluorescence (left) and correlation between subject age and corrected fluorescence (right) as function of correction factors kx and km.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of a single cross-validation iteration. Validation data (red box) consisted of all spectra from a given specimen collected on a single study day (in this case, the fourth normoglycemic specimen on the third study day). Calibration data (blue boxes) consisted of spectra from all specimens except the validation specimen (i.e., the vertical column of gray boxes) obtained on all days except the validation study day (i.e., the horizontal row of gray boxes). Calibration data were mean-centered according to their incubation medium in order to eliminate medium-specific biases that could unfairly inform the PLS model. The mean spectrum of the calibration data from the appropriate incubation medium was subtracted from the validation data prior to generation of PLS AGE estimates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average NIR reflectance spectra for all specimens in each incubation medium. Each trace depicts the average spectrum of all specimens in a given incubation medium on one of the 10 days of spectral data acquisition during the 5-week experiment. Vertical axes are identical for all three panels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average fluorescence excitation spectra (λ x = 315-385 nm, λ m = 400 nm) for all specimens in each incubation medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-Validated Standard Errors of Prediction for CML and Pentosidine using both NIR data sets (transmission, reflectance; dashed lines), the three independent fluorescence data sets (M1, X1, X2; thinner solid lines), and the three fluorescence data sets appended together into a single large spectrum (thick solid line). ● = statistically significant result, □= optimum number of PLS model factors as computed by Akaike’s Information Criterion [37].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PLS predictions from analysis of the appended fluorescence spectral data set vs. wet-chemical assay results for CML (left panel) and pentosidine (right panel).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Control CVSEP curves for CML and Pentosidine using both NIR data sets (transmission, reflectance; dashed lines), the three independent fluorescence data sets (M1, X1, X2; thinner solid lines), and the three fluorescence data sets appended together into a single large spectrum (thicker solid line). For the control cases, the reference values for the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic specimens were switched. ● = statistically significant result.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Left panel: CML concentrations from wet chemical assays of punch biopsy specimens taken from Type 1 diabetic patients and nondiabetic controls (reproduced from Ref. 16). Right panel: Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves calculated by cross-validated quadratic discriminants analysis of the data in the left panel under assumptions noninvasive measurement errors of zero (blue line), 0.5 mmol/mol lysine (green line), and 1.0 mmol/mol lysine (red line). The measurement error encountered in the in vitro experiment was 1.24 mmol/mol lysine.

Equations (3)

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f xm = F xm R x k x R m k m
AGE = b ̂ · s val ,
CVSEP = i = 1 N pred e i 2 / ( N pred 3 ) ,

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