Abstract

We have demonstrated an experimentally very simple and sensitive GRENOUILLE device for measuring the intensity and phase vs. time and spatio-temporal distortions of 100-fs to few-ps 1.5-μm pulses using the nonlinear-optical crystal Proustite. We show that the dispersive and nonlinear-optical characteristics of Proustite are critical for achieving very simple and reliable measurements of such pulses from fiber lasers and optical parametric amplifiers.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 65, 277-294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Menlo Systems: TC-1550 B, Imra: Femtolite Series, Fianium: FemtoMaster 1550, Pritel: FFL Series.
  3. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. O'Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, "Highly simplified ultrashort pulse measurement," Opt. Lett. 26, 932 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, "Extremely simple device for measuring 20 fs pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1025 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, "Measuring spatial chirp in ultrashort pulses using single-shot Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Express 11, 68-78 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-1-68">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-1-68</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, "Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE," Opt. Express 11, 491-501 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-491">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-491</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. Sorokina, "Measuring several-cycle 1.5-µm pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Express 11, 3461-3466 (2003), <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3461">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3461</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. O'Shea, S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurements with "GRENOUILLE"" Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics (to be published).
  10. S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek , R. Tebino, "Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp " Opt. Express 12, xxxx (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-xxxx
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. O'Shea, S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurements with "GRENOUILLE"" Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics (to be published).

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 65, 277-294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

Menlo Systems: TC-1550 B, Imra: Femtolite Series, Fianium: FemtoMaster 1550, Pritel: FFL Series.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Top). A FROG device (above) and its simpler version, GRENOUILLE (below). (Bottom) Top and side views of GRENOUILLE.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse-width range measurable using a GRENOUILLE with a 3.5 mm Proustite crystal (green region) or alternatively a 3.5 mm LiIO3 crystal (blue region). The upper limit of each region represents the limit set by the spectral resolution of the crystal (L GVM = τp). The lower limit of each region represents the limit set by GVD induced by the crystal (L GVD = τc). The green curve in the blue region shows the lower limit of the area of the region of pulses measurable using Proustite. Note that LiIO3 is ideal for measuring pulses about 100 fs long, but it cannot measure pulses longer than a few hundred fs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tests of our 1.5-μm GRENOUILLE: (a) measured GRENOUILLE trace; (b) retrieved GRENOUILLE trace (FROG error:0.0055); (c-d) retrieved temporal and spectral intensity and phase (the retrieved pulse width is 779 fs and the bandwidth is 8.2 nm); (e) measured multi-shot FROG trace; (f) retrieved multi-shot FROG trace (FROG error:0.0023); (g-h) retrieved temporal and spectral intensity and phase (the retrieved pulse width is 765 fs and the bandwidth is 8.1 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tests of our 1.5-μm GRENOUILLE with more complicated pulses: (a) Measured and (b) retrieved GRENOUILLE traces (FROG error 0.0055) for a double pulse; (c-d) retrieved spectral and temporal intensity and phase.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

GRENOUILLE traces for pulses with different amount of pulse-front tilt. The shift of the trace reveals and measures the pulse-front tilt. Note that these traces are not centered at zero delay, and the trace with greater pulse-front tilt has greater displacement from zero delay, as expected.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase-matching curve for Proustite. Proustite also begins to absorb very strongly below 600μm.

Equations (2)

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L GVM >> τ p
L GVD << τ c

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