Abstract

Ten-millijoule 35-femtosecond laser pulses interact with a cell of helium or neon that extends from a focusing lens to an exit foil near the laser focus. High harmonic orders in the range of 50 to 100 are investigated as a function of focal position relative to the exit foil. An aperture placed in front of the focusing lens increases the brightness of observed harmonics by more than an order of magnitude. Counter-propagating light is used to directly probe where the high harmonics are generated within the laser focus. In neon, the harmonics are generated in the last few millimeters before the exit foil, limited by absorption. In helium, the harmonics are produced over a much longer distance.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Peatross, J. R. Sutherland, K. R. Smith, S. Rhynard, and B. W. Pratt, �??Phase matching of high harmonic generation in helium- and neon-filled gas cells,�?? J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Rundquist, C. G. D. III, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Phase- Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-Rays,�?? Science 280, 1412 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, �??Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,�?? Lett. to Nature 421, 51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. a. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??High-Order Harmonic Generation up to 250eV from Highly Ionized Argon,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Voronov, I. Kohl, J.B. Madsen, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang and J. Peatross �??Control of Laser High Harmonic Generation with Counter-Propagating Light,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Center for X-Ray Optics, �??Gas Filter Transmission,�?? <a href= "http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/gastrn2.html">http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/gastrn2.html</a>
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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, �??Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13nm by high-order harmonics,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, �??High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam,�?? Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Peatross, J. R. Sutherland, K. R. Smith, S. Rhynard, and B. W. Pratt, �??Phase matching of high harmonic generation in helium- and neon-filled gas cells,�?? J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Lett. to Nature (2)

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Shaped-pulsed optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft x-rays,�?? Lett. to Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, �??Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,�?? Lett. to Nature 421, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, �??Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x-rays by high-order harmonics,�?? Phys. Rev. A 66, 021802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

V. Tosa, E Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa and K Midorikawa, �??Generation of high-order harmonics in a self-guided beam,�?? Phys. Rev. A. 67, 063817 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. a. Tobey, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??High-Order Harmonic Generation up to 250eV from Highly Ionized Argon,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Voronov, I. Kohl, J.B. Madsen, N. Terry, J. Titensor, Q. Wang and J. Peatross �??Control of Laser High Harmonic Generation with Counter-Propagating Light,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. a. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Atwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Coherent Soft X-Ray Generation in the Water Window with Quasi-Phase Matching,�?? Science 302, 95 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. D. III, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Phase- Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-Rays,�?? Science 280, 1412 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Center for X-Ray Optics, �??Gas Filter Transmission,�?? <a href= "http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/gastrn2.html">http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/gastrn2.html</a>

Supplementary Material (5)

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» Media 4: MOV (708 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (1378 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(1.1 MB) Movie of harmonics generated in 120 torr helium as aperture radius varies.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

(1.2 MB) Movie of Harmonics generated in 55 Torr neon as aperture radius varies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(.71 MB) Movie of harmonics produced in 55 Torr of neon as focus position is varied with respect to the exit foil. The lower image is a side view of the laser focus.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(.71 MB) Movie of harmonics produced in 115 Torr of helium as focus position is varied with respect to the exit foil. The lower image is a side view of the laser focus.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(1.3 MB) Movie of harmonics in 55 torr neon as counter-propagating light sweeps through the focus.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Graphs of harmonic signal as a fraction of individual maximum vs. counter-propagating pulse collision point. In (b), the focus is 6mm farther upstream and pressure is 25 torr less than in (a), neon at 55 torr.

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