Abstract

We investigate the use of all-optical regenerators to correct pulse distortions introduced by group delay ripple. Group delay ripple creates unwanted satellite pulses and intensity fluctuations. By placing an all-optical regenerator after a device that introduces group delay ripple, we show that the signal distortions can be effectively reduced. This has the benefit of opening the signal eye at the receiver. The performances of both self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing based regenerators in reducing ripple induced system penalties are examined. We find that the regenerator based on four-wave mixing achieves better suppression of group delay ripple distortions than the self-phase modulation based alternative. The eye closure penalty introduced by group delay ripple is reduced by the four-wave mixing based regenerator by 1dB.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, D. Chiaroni and E. Desurvire, �??All-Optical Regeneration: Principles and WDM Implementation,�?? in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVA: Components, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds (Academic Press 2002), pp. 732 783.
  2. N. M. Litchinitser, Y. Li, M. Sumestsky, P. S. Westbrook and B. J. Eggleton, �??Tunable Dispersion Compensation Devices: Group Delay Ripple and System Performance,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Atlanta,2003), 1, pp. 163-164.
  3. L. S. Yan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, K M. Feng, R. Khosravani, and J. Rothenberg, �??System impact of group-delay ripple in single and cascaded chirped FBGs,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2002), pp. 700-702.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Agrawal, �??Pulse propagation in Optical Fibers,�?? in Nonlinear Fiber Optics 2nd Edition, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995), pp. 31-58.
  5. C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, and W. Rosenkranz, �??System impact of ripples in grating group delay�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Kielec, 1999), pp. 33-36.
  6. J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, �??Impact of group delay ripple on repetition-rate multiplication through Talbot self-imaging effect,�?? Opt. Comm. 232, 167-178, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. V. Mamyshev, �??All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect�??, in Proceedings of 24th European Conference on Optical Communications, (Madrid, 1998), 1, pp. 475-476.
  8. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox and M. F. Man, �??Characteristics of All-optical 2R Regenerator based on Selfphase Modulation in Highly-nonlinear Fibers�??, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Long Beach, 2002), pp. 612-613.
  9. E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, �??All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849�??851 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, J. T. Mok, P. F. Hu, J. A. Bolger, P. Hambley and B. J. Eggleton, �??Simultaneous residual chromatic dispersion monitoring and frequency conversion with gain using a parametric amplifier,�?? Opt. Express 11, 3122�??3127 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3122">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3122</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, J. T. Mok, R. W. McKerracher and B. J. Eggleton, �??Cascaded four-wave mixing in fiber optical parametric amplifiers: Application to residual dispersion monitoring,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)
  12. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, �??All-optical regeneration in one- and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957�??959 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Her, G. Raybon and C. Headley, �??Optimization of Pulse Regeneration at 40 Gb/s Based on Spectral Filtering of Self-Phase Modulation in Fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200�??202 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer and K. Feder, �??40Gbit/s Pseudo-linear transmission over one million kilometres,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2002), pp. FD-10 1-3.
  15. R. Essiambre, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, �??Pseudo-linear transmission of high-speed TDM signals: 40 and 160 Gb/s,�?? in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB: Systems and Impairments, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic Press 2002), pp. 232-304.
  16. B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen, and B. Mikkelsen, �??Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1418-1432 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, and K. Mochizuki, �??Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1177-1180, (1989).
    [CrossRef]

24th European Conference on Optical Com

P. V. Mamyshev, �??All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect�??, in Proceedings of 24th European Conference on Optical Communications, (Madrid, 1998), 1, pp. 475-476.

Fiber Telecommunications IVA: Components

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, D. Chiaroni and E. Desurvire, �??All-Optical Regeneration: Principles and WDM Implementation,�?? in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVA: Components, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds (Academic Press 2002), pp. 732 783.

IEEE Conf on Lasers and Electro- Optics

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox and M. F. Man, �??Characteristics of All-optical 2R Regenerator based on Selfphase Modulation in Highly-nonlinear Fibers�??, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Long Beach, 2002), pp. 612-613.

IEEE Conf on Transparent Optical Network

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, and W. Rosenkranz, �??System impact of ripples in grating group delay�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Kielec, 1999), pp. 33-36.

IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Commun

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer and K. Feder, �??40Gbit/s Pseudo-linear transmission over one million kilometres,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2002), pp. FD-10 1-3.

N. M. Litchinitser, Y. Li, M. Sumestsky, P. S. Westbrook and B. J. Eggleton, �??Tunable Dispersion Compensation Devices: Group Delay Ripple and System Performance,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Atlanta,2003), 1, pp. 163-164.

L. S. Yan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, K M. Feng, R. Khosravani, and J. Rothenberg, �??System impact of group-delay ripple in single and cascaded chirped FBGs,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2002), pp. 700-702.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, �??All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849�??851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, �??All-optical regeneration in one- and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957�??959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Her, G. Raybon and C. Headley, �??Optimization of Pulse Regeneration at 40 Gb/s Based on Spectral Filtering of Self-Phase Modulation in Fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200�??202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen, and B. Mikkelsen, �??Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1418-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, and K. Mochizuki, �??Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1177-1180, (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, J. T. Mok, R. W. McKerracher and B. J. Eggleton, �??Cascaded four-wave mixing in fiber optical parametric amplifiers: Application to residual dispersion monitoring,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)

Nonlinear Fiber Optics 2nd Edition

G. P. Agrawal, �??Pulse propagation in Optical Fibers,�?? in Nonlinear Fiber Optics 2nd Edition, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995), pp. 31-58.

Opt. Comm.

J. T. Mok and B. J. Eggleton, �??Impact of group delay ripple on repetition-rate multiplication through Talbot self-imaging effect,�?? Opt. Comm. 232, 167-178, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Optical Fiber Telecommun IVB: Systems an

R. Essiambre, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, �??Pseudo-linear transmission of high-speed TDM signals: 40 and 160 Gb/s,�?? in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB: Systems and Impairments, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. (Academic Press 2002), pp. 232-304.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Using all-optical regeneration to correct group delay ripple induced pulse degradation. Point A: dispersed pulses, Point B: dispersion compensated but group delay ripple distorted pulses and Point C: regenerated pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of harmonic group delay ripple (dotted line) on an isolated pulse, whose power spectrum (solid line) is shown on the left. The resulting temporal pulse shape is shown on the right. pr and 1/pr are the ripple period and frequency, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SPM-based (left) and FWM-based (right) optical regenerators. Their power transfer functions are shown as solid lines. Powers are normalised to the nominal integrated input power. Timing jitter shown as dashed lines is normalised to the 25 ps bit period. The input pulse full-width at half maximum is 8.25 ps. The top diagrams show the spectral content of the signal after the DS-HNLF in both regenerators.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Regenerator’s tolerance to intensity (left-hand column) and pulse-width fluctuations (right-hand column). Top: Before regeneration, middle: regenerated via SPM, bottom: via FWM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity-dependent timing jitter in the SPM-based regenerator..Pulse shapes at various stages of the SPM-based regenerator are shown as solid lines, frequency chirp as dotted lines, and the filter passband as grey band. Point A: input pulses with intensity fluctuation, point B: pulses under the effects of SPM and normal dispersion, and Point C: output pulses with timing jitter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Harmonic ripple analysis: Eye-closure penalty (dB) before and after each regenerator. Darker regions represent higher penalty. Top and bottom rows illustrate the cases for ϕr = 0 and ϕr = π/2, respectively. Contour lines are spaced by 0.5 dB. Ripple amplitude and period are normalised to the bit-period (T) and the bit-rate (1/T), respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured group delay ripple. Dotted line shows the spectrum of a 8.25 ps unchirped Gaussian pulse.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Realistic ripple analysis: (Partial) pulse sequences, optical eye diagrams and eye-closure penalty before and after each regenerator. Shaded rectangles representing the eye-closures are used in the calculation of Ceye .

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Eye-closure penalty before (filled circles) and after (open circles) the FWM-based regenerator for a range of input wavelength drifts.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of the SPM-based and FWM-based optical regenerators

Equations (1)

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Δ τ g ( ν ) = a r 2 cos ( 2 π ν p r + φ r )

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