Abstract

We propose a novel technique to add new degrees of freedom in fiber optic coupler devices. Micro-optical waveguide (MOW) on a micro-actuating platform (MAP) structure has been proposed and experimentally implemented using fiber waveguides, where the coupling characteristics of MOW are mechanically varied by precise axial stress control by MAP. As an application of the proposed structure, we mounted the coupling zone of fused taper coupler array on a MAP to demonstrate a novel re-configurable 1×4 wavelength selective optical switching function. Robust mechanical tuning among output ports of a four-channel demultiplexer was realized by precise elongation control of the taper region in serially cascaded fused fiber couplers. Simultaneous re-configurable wavelength routing and switching functions were demonstrated among four channels in 1.5 μm coarse WDM transmission window. We report the principle, design concept, and the performances of the proposed device structure along with its potential in re-configurable fiber optics.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T.Y. Chai, �??Architectural design for multistage 2-D MEMS optical switches,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 178-187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R.L. Wood, R. Mahadevan, and E. Hill, �??MEMS 2D matrix switch,�?? in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC2002), (Optical Society America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 91-92.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Y. Chai, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and G. Shen, �??Array interconnection for rearrangeable 2-D MEMS optical switch,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 1134-1140 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. K. Das, S. M. Mysore, J. Thomas, S. Radic, C. Wolf, B. Eichenbaum, C. Joyner, and L. Nelson, �??Coarse-WDM throughput of up to 20 Gb/s in the 1300-1440 nm region over 63 km of low water peak fiber,�?? in Proceedings of National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC2001), 850-855.
  5. C. Carlsson, H. Martinsson, A. Larsson, and A. Alping, �??High performance microwave link using a multimode VCSEL and a high-bandwidth multimode fiber,�?? in Proceedings of 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP�??01), 81-84.
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Appl. Opt.

Electon. Lett.

M. B. J. Diemeer, W. J. De Vries, and K.W. Benoist, �??Fused coupler switch using a thermo-optic cladding,�?? Electon. Lett. 24, 457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. A. Birks, �??Power equalization in 3x3 fibre couplers by twisting tuning,�?? Electron. Lett. 27, 1087 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. L. Shubochkin, V. A. Kozlov, A. L. G. Carter, and T. F. Morse, �??Tunable thulium-doped all-fiber laser,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 944-945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, �??Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 882-884 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, �??Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Lin, M. Kao, and S.Chi, �??The modified star-ring architecture for high-capacity subcarrier multiplexed passive optical networks,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 32-39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol.

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T.Y. Chai, �??Architectural design for multistage 2-D MEMS optical switches,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 20, 178-187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chai, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and G. Shen, �??Array interconnection for rearrangeable 2-D MEMS optical switch,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 21, 1134-1140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Photonics 2001

C. Carlsson, H. Martinsson, A. Larsson, and A. Alping, �??High performance microwave link using a multimode VCSEL and a high-bandwidth multimode fiber,�?? in Proceedings of 2001 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP�??01), 81-84.

NFOEC 2001

S. K. Das, S. M. Mysore, J. Thomas, S. Radic, C. Wolf, B. Eichenbaum, C. Joyner, and L. Nelson, �??Coarse-WDM throughput of up to 20 Gb/s in the 1300-1440 nm region over 63 km of low water peak fiber,�?? in Proceedings of National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC2001), 850-855.

OFC 2000

J. E. Fouquet, �??Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lightwave circuit,�?? in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC2000), (Optical Society America, Washington, D.C., 2000), 204-206.

OFC 2002

R.L. Wood, R. Mahadevan, and E. Hill, �??MEMS 2D matrix switch,�?? in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC2002), (Optical Society America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 91-92.
[CrossRef]

W. Shin and K. Oh, �??Re-configurable 2x2 wavelength selective cross connect switch based on a fused optical fiber coupler,�?? in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC 2002), (Optical Society America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThGG57.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of proposed “MOW on MAP”: The fused taper waist of the coupler serves as MOW and the electro-mechanical actuating system serves as MAP. When the axial stress is applied on the MOW by precise control of pulling in MAP, the coupling constants change and subsequently the throughput of the “MOW on MAP” device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoelastic effect in silica glass fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic structure of 1×4 CWDM demultiplexer and its spectral response.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The design of spectra of WDM couplers for 4 channel CWDM demultiplexer and its response to the π phase shift in the 1st stage coupler: (a) The transmission spectrum of in 1st stage coupler before the π phase shift, (b) The transmission spectra of in 1st stage coupler after the π phase shift, (c) The transmission spectra of in 2nd stage Coupler (Port 1 and Port 2), (d) The transmission spectra of in 2nd stage coupler (Port 3 and Port 4), (e) Final throughput transmission spectra before the λ phase shift in the 1st stage coupler, (f) Final throughput transmission spectra after the π phase shift in the 1st stage coupler.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The impact of π phase shift in the first stage coupler induced by “MOW on MAP” structure over the spectral response of the 1×4 CWDM demultiplexer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra through the fabricated 4 channel CWDM demultiplexer, Port 1 transmission peaks at 1510 nm, while Port 2 does at 1550 nm, Port 3 at 1530 nm, and Port 4 at 1570 nm. This is consistent with the design as in Fig. 4(e).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

MOW on MAP structure.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Transmission spectra change through the port 1 of the 1st stage coupler in Fig. 3, induced by the axial stress in “MOW on MAP” structure, (b) Temporal response of the “MOW on MAP” structure over periodic actuations.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission spectra and normalized output from the proposed device before and after π phase shift. (a) Port 1(1510 nm), (b) Port 2(1550 nm), (c) Port 3(1530 nm), (d) Port4 (1570 nm).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Experimental set-up for measurement of bit error rate (BER) and polarization dependent loss (PDL).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Band routing performance in 1550 nm 10 Gb signal: BER vs Receiver power.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Polarization Dependent Loss(PDL) of proposed device during switching process.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The configuration table for the proposed wavelength selective routing device, Here the first and the third columns are the phase shifts induced on the coupler in “MOW on MAP” structure. Columns 4 to 7 are the output wavelengths.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 1 ( z ) = cos 2 ( 0 z C ( z ' ) dz ' ) ,
P 2 ( z ) = sin 2 ( 0 z C ( z ' ) dz ' ) ,
C ( z ) = σ U 2 ( z ) K 0 ( W ) b V 3 ( z ) K 1 2 ( W ) ,
Δ n r = C a σ r + C b ( σ θ + σ z ) ,
Δ n θ = C a σ θ + C b ( σ z + σ r ) ,
Δ n z = C a σ z + C b ( σ r + σ θ ) ,

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