Abstract

Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers can be used to measure strain or temperature in a distributed manner. Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is the most common sensor system based on the Brillouin scattering. To improve the spatial resolution of these measurements, shorter pulses must be used, resulting in reduced signal powers causing a decrease of the dynamic range. In this paper, a double-pulse technique was proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of BOTDA. Experimental results showed that the ability to resolve two adjacent events could be enhanced, about twice, by using a double-pulsed pump light without decreases in the dynamic range.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Culshaw and J. P. Dakin, Eds., Optical Fiber Sensors (Boston, London, Artech House, 1989), I and II.
  2. M. K. Barnoski and S. M. Jensen, �??Fiber waveguides: A novel technique for investigating attenuation characteristics,�?? Appl. Opt. 15, 2112-2115, (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, �??Optical fiber attenuation investigation using stimulated Brillouin scattering between a pulse and a continuous wave,�?? Opt. Lett. 14, 408-410, (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, �??BOTDA-Nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Kaiser and M. Maier, �??Stimuilated Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman Sectroscopy,�?? in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi and E. O. Schulz-Dubois, eds. (North-Holland, 1972), 2, 1077-1150.
  6. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, Boston, 1989), chap. 9.
  7. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, �??Brillouin gain spectrim characterization in single-mode optical fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842-1851 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, �??BOTDA-Nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, �??Brillouin gain spectrim characterization in single-mode optical fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842-1851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

B. Culshaw and J. P. Dakin, Eds., Optical Fiber Sensors (Boston, London, Artech House, 1989), I and II.

W. Kaiser and M. Maier, �??Stimuilated Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman Sectroscopy,�?? in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi and E. O. Schulz-Dubois, eds. (North-Holland, 1972), 2, 1077-1150.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, Boston, 1989), chap. 9.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Locations of a single pulse (left) and its corresponding scattering power (right) at fixed frequency modulation of probe light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Locations of a double-pulse (left) and its corresponding scattering power (right) at fixed frequency modulation of probe light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for Brillouin gain spectrum measurements. (ISO = isolator, PC = polarization controller, PS = polarization scrambler, DET = detector, ATT = attenuator, CIR = circulator.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Configuration of the fiber under test. (section 1 and section 3: strained sections, section 2: free fiber section.)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BGS of 80 ns single pulse (left) and BGS’s of single pulses (right) at the position of 1800 m

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BGS’s of single and double-pulses. (S: single pulse, D: double-pulse, D_A-B ns: A = pulse width, B = separation width)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized backscattering power of 80 ns single pulse (left) and 40-20 ns double-pulse (right) along the fiber. (with 2 m strained fiber section.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized backscattering power of 80 ns single pulse (left) and 40-20 ns double-pulse (right) along the fiber. (section 1 and section 3 = 2 m, section 2 = 2 m.)

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Normalized backscattering power of 80 ns single pulse (left) and 40-20 ns double-pulse (right) along the fiber. (section 1 and section 3 = 2 m, section 2 = 4 m.)

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

BGS’s of single and double-pulses. (S: single pulse, D: double-pulse, D_A-B ns: A = pulse width, B = separation width)

Equations (3)

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ν B = 2 n V a λ p
g B ( ν ) = g B ( ν B ) ( Δ ν B 2 ) 2 ( ν ν B ) 2 + ( Δ ν B 2 ) 2
g B ( ν B ) = g 0 = 2 π n 7 p 12 2 c λ p 2 ρ 0 V a Δ ν B

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