Abstract

We use interference between single- and two-photon photocurrent generation pathways in a semiconductor to measure the out-of-loop carrier-envelope-phase noise of a stabilized Ti:sapphire modelocked laser. This solid-state measurement technique exhibits no significant amplitude/phase coupling, adds no measurable phase noise compared to the standard self-referencing technique, and requires few optical components. The method features a built-in balanced detection mechanism that is particularly appealing for dc carrier-envelope-phase measurements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, �??Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,�?? Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

P. A. Roos, Xiaoqin Li, Jessica A. Pipis, S. T. Cundiff, Ravi D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, �??Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

J. Phys. D (1)

S. T. Cundiff, �??Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,�?? J. Phys. D 35, R43-R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, �??Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,�?? Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. of Physics (1)

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, �??Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime,�?? New J. of Physics 6, 1-17 (2004).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, �??Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J.E. Sipe, �??Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703�??1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, �??Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306�??309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, �??Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, �??Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, �??Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: Role of the carrier-envelope phase,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, �??Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, �??Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, �??An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,�?? Science 293, 825�??828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, �??Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10-19 level,�?? Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, �??Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,�?? Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. M. van Driel and J. E. Sipe, in Ultrafast phenomena in semiconductors, edited by K.-T. Tsen (Springer, New York, 2001), pp. 261-307, and references therein.

M. Wegener, Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Wolfgang-Gaede-Stra�?e 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany (personal communication, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup used to compare the CEP noise measurements via the QIC path and the SHG path: MS, microscructure fiber; P, polarizer; BPF, band pass filter; ×2, SHG crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase noise density versus sampling frequency measured using QIC (solid line), using SHG (dotted line), and in-loop (dashed line). The traces indicate that the QIC method does not add phase noise relative to the SHG method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time record of the QIC signal amplitude (solid line) and phase (dotted line) from lock-in detection (100-ms time constant) while the light level was repeatedly attenuated and unattenuated at 5-s intervals. No associated amplitude/phase correlations are observable.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase versus amplitude of the measured lock-in signal. The near-zero slope of the linear fit to this data indicates a low probability of correlation between the amplitude and phase (linear correlation coefficient: r = -0.025).

Equations (1)

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I = I 2 v + η 1 I v 2 + η 2 I 2 v η 1 I v 2 sin ( ϕ CE ) ,

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