Abstract

The use of pupil-plane filters in microscopes has been proposed as a method of producing superresolution. Here it is shown that pupil-plane filters cannot increase the support of the transfer function for a large class of optical systems, implying that resolution cannot be improved solely by adding pupil-plane filters to an instrument. However, pupil filters can improve signal-to-noise performance and modify transfer-function zero crossing positions, as demonstrated through a confocal fluorescence example.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Atti Fond. Giorgio (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, �??Nuovo pupille superresolventi,�?? Atti Fond. Giorgio 7, 366-372 (1952).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (11)

C.J.R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Y. Kawata and S. Kawata, �??Three-dimensional transfer functions for high-aperture systems,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 593-598 (1994).

M. Gu and C.J.R. Sheppard, �??Three-dimensional transfer functions in 4Pi confocal microscopes,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619-1627 (1994).

C.W. McCutchen, �??Generalized aperture and the three-dimensional diffraction image: erratum,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1721 (2002).

A. Schonle and S.W. Hell, �??Calculation of vectorial three-dimensional transfer functions in large-angle focusing systems,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2121-2126 (2002).

C.J.R. Sheppard and Z.S. Hegedus, �??Axial behavior of pupil-plane filters,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 643-647 (1988).

S. Grill and E.H.K. Stelzer, �??Method to calculate lateral and axial gain factors of optical setups with a large solid angle,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2658-2665 (1999).

D.M. de Juana, J.E. Oti, V.F. Canales and M.P. Cagigal, �??Transverse or axial superresolution in a 4Pi-confocal microscope by phase-only filters,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2172-2178 (2003).

S. Hell and E.H.K. Stelzer, �??Properties of a 4Pi confocal fluorescence microscope,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159-2166 (1992).

R. Heintzmann, T.M. Jovin and C. Cremer, �??Saturated patterned excitation microscopy �?? a concept for optical resolution improvement,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1599-1609 (2002).

M. Gu and C.J.R. Sheppard, �??Confocal fluorescent microscopy with a finite-sized circular detector,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 151-153 (1992).

M. Nagorni and S.W. Hell, �??Coherent use of opposing lenses for axial resolution increase in fluorescence microscopy. I. Comparative study of concepts,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 36-48 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M.R. Arnison and C.J.R. Sheppard, �??A 3D vectorial optics transfer function suitable for arbitrary pupil functions,�?? Opt. Commun. 211, 53-63 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Optik (3)

C.J.R. Sheppard, �??Leaky annular pupils for improved axial imaging,�?? Optik 99, 32-34 (1995).

C.J.R. Sheppard, �??The spatial frequency cut-off in three-dimensional imaging,�?? Optik 72, 131-133 (1986).

C.J.R. Sheppard, �??The spatial frequency cut-off in three-dimensional imaging II,�?? Optik 74, 128-129 (1986).

Phys. Lett. A (1)

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni and R. Ruggeri, �??Pupils with super-resolution,�?? Phys. Lett. A 311, 77-81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T.A. Klar, E. Engel and S.W. Hell, �??Breaking Abbe�??s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,�?? Phys. Rev. E 64, 066613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, �??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II: Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,�?? Proc. Roy. Soc. A (London) 253, 358-379 (1959).

Science (1)

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler and W.W. Webb, �??Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,�?? Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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