Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally that selective two-photon probe excitation using phase shaped pulses can be achieved even when the laser propagates through scattering tissue. The pre-optimized phase tailored femtosecond pulses were able to identify acidic and basic solutions of a pH sensitive chromophore hidden behind a slab of scattering tissue. This observation has important implications for future applications of coherent control for biomedical imaging and photodynamic therapy.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396, 239-242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase- shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, "Feedback quantum control of molecular electronic population transfer," Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151-158 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, "Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting," Nature 417, 533-535 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. C. Weinacht, J. L. White, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Toward strong field mode-selective chemistry," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10166-10168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. N. Zare, "Laser control of chemical reactions," Science 279, 1875-1879 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Gordon and S. A. Rice, "Active control of the dynamics of atoms and molecules," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 601-641 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Rice, "Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction," Nature 409, 422-426 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. Rice and S. P. Shah, "Active control of product selection in a chemical reaction: a view of the current scene," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1683-1700 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Rabitz, "Shaped laser pulses as reagents," Science 299, 525-527 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Dantus and V. V. Lozovoy, "Experimental Coherent Laser Control of Physicochemical Processes," Chem. Rev. 104, 1813 - 1860 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. A. Walowicz, I. Pastirk, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. 1. Control of multiphoton processes in condensed phases," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9369-9373 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3187-3196 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Dela Cruz, I. Pastirk, V. V. Lozovoy, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 3: Probing microscopic chemical environments," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 53-58 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Pastirk, J. M. Dela Cruz, K. A. Walowicz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Selective two-photon microscopy with shaped femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 11, 1695-1701 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. Denk, "Two-photon excitation in functional biological imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 296-304 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. G. Fisher, W. P. Partridge, C. Dees, and E. A. Wachter, "Simultaneous two-photon activation of type-I photodynamic therapy agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 141-155 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. 4. Characterization of the phase of ultrashort laser pulses.," Opt. Lett. 7, 775-777 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Comstock, V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 6; binary phase shaping," Opt. Express 12, 1061 - 1066 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. J. Gordon and S. A. Rice, "Active control of the dynamics of atoms and molecules," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 601-641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, "Feedback quantum control of molecular electronic population transfer," Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151-158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Dantus and V. V. Lozovoy, "Experimental Coherent Laser Control of Physicochemical Processes," Chem. Rev. 104, 1813 - 1860 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Denk, "Two-photon excitation in functional biological imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 296-304 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3187-3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (3)

J. M. Dela Cruz, I. Pastirk, V. V. Lozovoy, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 3: Probing microscopic chemical environments," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 53-58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Weinacht, J. L. White, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Toward strong field mode-selective chemistry," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10166-10168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Walowicz, I. Pastirk, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. 1. Control of multiphoton processes in condensed phases," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9369-9373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, "Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting," Nature 417, 533-535 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396, 239-242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rice, "Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction," Nature 409, 422-426 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference. 4. Characterization of the phase of ultrashort laser pulses.," Opt. Lett. 7, 775-777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

W. G. Fisher, W. P. Partridge, C. Dees, and E. A. Wachter, "Simultaneous two-photon activation of type-I photodynamic therapy agents," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 141-155 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. A. Rice and S. P. Shah, "Active control of product selection in a chemical reaction: a view of the current scene," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 1683-1700 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, "Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

R. N. Zare, "Laser control of chemical reactions," Science 279, 1875-1879 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase- shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabitz, "Shaped laser pulses as reagents," Science 299, 525-527 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The shaped laser pulses impinge on the sample from right to left. The sample with or without scattering tissue is scanned in the focal plane of the laser while the two-photon induced fluorescence is detected at each point.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimized phase functions and the resulting SHG after they are tested with a thin SHG crystal. The panel on the left shows the fundamental spectrum of the pulse and the three different pulses evaluated, transform limited (TL), optimized for acidic excitation (BPS06) and optimized for basic excitation (BPS10). The panel on the right shows the SHG spectrum obtained when each of the laser pulses goes through a thin SHG crystal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence signal obtained from two capillaries with JPTS in buffered solutions. The signal was obtained after excitation with TL and shaped pulses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results obtained with TL (black dots) pulses and difference plot obtained from the shaped laser pulses (red circles). Notice that shaped laser pulses are capable of selective excitation even when the laser transmits through scattering tissue

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SHG spectrum for TL and for shaped pulses (BPS06) in the presence and absence of biological tissue (intensity multiplied x20).

Metrics