Abstract

The single mode square lattice photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (PC-VCSELs) are proposed and demonstrated. Square-lattice photonic-crystal patterns of various lattice constants are introduced on top mirrors of VCSELs having two different current apertures. The maximum single mode output power of about 1 mW is obtained from the device with lattice constant of 5.0 µm and current aperture of 16 µm. The PC-VCSEL operates in a single transverse mode in an entire operating current range with a side-mode suppression ratio of over 20 dB. The asymmetric introduction of smaller air holes improves the polarization selectivity.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L.-G. Zei, S. Ebers, J.-R Kropp, and K. Petermann, “Noise Performance of Multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 884–892 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Valle and L. Pesquera “Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272–274 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.
  5. Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. Jong-Hwa Baek, Dae-Sung Song, In-kag Hwang, Keum-Hee Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Transverse mode control by etch-depth tuning in 1120-nm GaInAs/GaAs photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 12, .859–867, (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-859.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963, (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

L.-G. Zei, S. Ebers, J.-R Kropp, and K. Petermann, “Noise Performance of Multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 884–892 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Valle and L. Pesquera “Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272–274 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Baek, Jong-Hwa

Birks, T.A.

Choi, Han-woo

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

Choquette, Kent D.

Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
[Crossref]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
[Crossref]

Danner, Aaron J.

Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
[Crossref]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
[Crossref]

Ebeling, K. J.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

Ebers, S.

Golling, M.

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

Hwang, In-kag

Jager, R.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

Kicherer, M.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, Chang-Kyu

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, Se-Heon

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Knight, J.C.

Kropp, J.-R

Lee, Keum-Hee

Lee, Y. H.

Lee, Yong-Hee

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, Yong-Jae

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

Mahmoud, S. W. Z.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

Michalzik, R.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

Park, Hong-Gyu

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Pesquera, L.

A. Valle and L. Pesquera “Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272–274 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Raftery, James J.

Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
[Crossref]

Russell, P.St.J.

Song, Dae-Sung

Jong-Hwa Baek, Dae-Sung Song, In-kag Hwang, Keum-Hee Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Transverse mode control by etch-depth tuning in 1120-nm GaInAs/GaAs photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 12, .859–867, (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-859.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Supper, D.

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

Unold, H. J.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

Valle, A.

A. Valle and L. Pesquera “Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272–274 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wiedenmann, D.

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

Yokouchi, Noriyuki

Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
[Crossref]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
[Crossref]

Zei, L.-G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Singlefundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903, (2002).
[Crossref]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3610, (2003).
[Crossref]

Aaron J. Danner, James J. Raftery, Noriyuki Yokouchi, and Kent D. Choquette, “Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031–1033, (2004).
[Crossref]

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182–3184, (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Valle and L. Pesquera “Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272–274 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann, M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152–1154, (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,” in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of square-lattice PC-VCSELs with Λ=4.0 µm and a=0.7 Λ(2.8 µm) (a) Regular PC-VCSEL, (b) Modified PC-VCSEL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

L-I characteristics of regular PC-VCSELs with (a) current aperture of 16µm, (b) current aperture of 12 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PC-guided modes for a fully-drilled regular PC-VCSEL calculated by plane wave expansion method (a) fundamental PC-guided mode, (b) 2nd PC-guided mode, (c) 3rd PC-guided mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization-resolved near-field pattern at (a) 10 mA, (b) 15 mA, (c) Polarizationresolved spectra for a regular PC-VCSEL with current aperture of 16µm, lattice constant (Λ) of 5.0 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Polarization-resolved L-I characteristics (b) The spectra at various operating currents for a modified PC-VCSEL with small air holes of 0.3Λ in X-direction, current aperture of 16 µm and lattice constant of 4.0 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PC-guided modes for a fully-drilled modified square-lattice PC-VCSEL calculated by plane wave expansion method (a) fundamental PC-guided mode, (b) 2nd PC-guided mode, (c) 3rd PC-guided mode, (d) 4th PC-guided mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polarization-resolved near-field patterns at (a) 10 mA (b) 15 mA (c) Polarization-resolved spectra for a modified PC-VCSEL with small air holes of 0.3Λ in Y-direction, current aperture of 16µm and lattice constant (Λ) of 4.0 µm. All the dimensions of this PC-VCSEL are identical to those of Fig. 5. For comparison purposes, both PC-VCSELs of Fig. 5 and Fig. 7 are fabricated on the same wafer, but the orientations of small air holes are perpendicular to each other.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the regular PC-VCSEL and the modified PC-VCSEL, S; single mode operation (20 dB criterion), S→M; transition from single mode to multi-mode operation, M; multi-mode operation.

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