Abstract

The single mode square lattice photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (PC-VCSELs) are proposed and demonstrated. Square-lattice photonic-crystal patterns of various lattice constants are introduced on top mirrors of VCSELs having two different current apertures. The maximum single mode output power of about 1 mW is obtained from the device with lattice constant of 5.0 µm and current aperture of 16 µm. The PC-VCSEL operates in a single transverse mode in an entire operating current range with a side-mode suppression ratio of over 20 dB. The asymmetric introduction of smaller air holes improves the polarization selectivity.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Dae-Sung Song, Se-Heon Kim, Hong-Gyu Park, Chang-Kyu Kim, and Yong-Hee Lee, �??Singlefundamental- mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901-3903, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Noriyuki Yokouchi, Aaron J. Danner, and Kent D. Choquette, �??Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608-3610, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Aaron J. Danner and James J. Raftery Jr., Noriyuki Yokouchi and Kent D. Choquette, �??Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031-1033, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dae-Sung Song, Yong-Jae Lee, Han-woo Choi, and Yong-Hee Lee, �??Polarization-controlled, single-transverse- mode-photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182-3184, (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Valle and L. Pesquera �??Relative Intensity Noise of Multitransverse-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Lasers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 272-274, (2001)
[CrossRef]

S. W. Z. Mahmoud, D. Wiedenmann M. Kicherer, H. J. Unold, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, �??Spatial Investigation of Transverse Mode Turn-on Dynamics in VCSELs,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1152-1154, (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Jong-Hwa Baek, Dae-Sung Song, In-kag Hwang, Keum-Hee Lee and Y. H. Lee, �??Transverse mode control by etch-depth tuning in 1120-nm GaInAs/GaAs photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 859-867, (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-859">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-859</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, �??Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser: Tailoring Waveguiding for Single-Mode Emission,�?? in Proceeding of the 27th European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2001), Paper Th. A. 1.4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of square-lattice PC-VCSELs with Λ=4.0 µm and a=0.7 Λ(2.8 µm) (a) Regular PC-VCSEL, (b) Modified PC-VCSEL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

L-I characteristics of regular PC-VCSELs with (a) current aperture of 16µm, (b) current aperture of 12 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PC-guided modes for a fully-drilled regular PC-VCSEL calculated by plane wave expansion method (a) fundamental PC-guided mode, (b) 2nd PC-guided mode, (c) 3rd PC-guided mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization-resolved near-field pattern at (a) 10 mA, (b) 15 mA, (c) Polarizationresolved spectra for a regular PC-VCSEL with current aperture of 16µm, lattice constant (Λ) of 5.0 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Polarization-resolved L-I characteristics (b) The spectra at various operating currents for a modified PC-VCSEL with small air holes of 0.3Λ in X-direction, current aperture of 16 µm and lattice constant of 4.0 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PC-guided modes for a fully-drilled modified square-lattice PC-VCSEL calculated by plane wave expansion method (a) fundamental PC-guided mode, (b) 2nd PC-guided mode, (c) 3rd PC-guided mode, (d) 4th PC-guided mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polarization-resolved near-field patterns at (a) 10 mA (b) 15 mA (c) Polarization-resolved spectra for a modified PC-VCSEL with small air holes of 0.3Λ in Y-direction, current aperture of 16µm and lattice constant (Λ) of 4.0 µm. All the dimensions of this PC-VCSEL are identical to those of Fig. 5. For comparison purposes, both PC-VCSELs of Fig. 5 and Fig. 7 are fabricated on the same wafer, but the orientations of small air holes are perpendicular to each other.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the regular PC-VCSEL and the modified PC-VCSEL, S; single mode operation (20 dB criterion), S→M; transition from single mode to multi-mode operation, M; multi-mode operation.

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