Abstract

We experimentally investigate the size-selective trapping behavior of Laguerre-Gaussian beams (“doughnut-beams”) and “cogwheel”-shaped beams which are collinear superpositions of two doughnut beams of equal opposite helical index. Experimentally they are created by diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam at a high resolution refractive spatial light modulator (SLM). In the focus of an optical microscope such a beam looks similar to a “cogwheel”, i.e. the light intensity is periodically modulated around the circumference of a sphere with a precisely adjustable diameter. In an optical tweezers setup these modes can be used to trap particles or cells, provided their sizes exceed the ring diameter by a fixed amount. This promises a convenient method of constructing an optical tweezers system in microscopy which acts as a passive sorter for particles of differing sizes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Am. J. Phys. (1)

M. J. Lang and S. M. Block, �??Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser based optical tweezers,�?? Am. J. Phys. 71, 201�??215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, �??Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943�??1949 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Singer, S. Bernet, N. Hecker, and M. Ritsch-Marte, �??Three-dimensional force calibration of optical tweezers,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2921�??2931 (2000).

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

S. Chávez-Cerda, M. J. Padgett, I. Allison, G. H. C. New, J. C. Guitiérrez-Vega, A. T. O�??Neil, I. MacVicar, and J. Courtial, �??Holographic generation and orbital angular momentum of high-order Mathieu beams,�?? J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, 52�??57 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, �??Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,�?? Nature 419, 145�??147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, �??A revolution in optical manipulation,�?? Nature 424, 810�??816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, �??Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,�?? Nature 426, 421�??424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, �??Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,�?? Opt. Commun. 185, 77�??82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, �??Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,�?? Opt. Commun. 207, 169�??175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. C. Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, �??Three-dimensional arrays of optical bottle beams,�?? Opt. Commun. 225, 215�??222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, J. Crain, K. Heggarty, and M. Birch, �??High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2053�??2059 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-17-2053.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-17-2053</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Melville, G. F. Milne, G. C. Spalding, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and D. McGloin, �??Optical trapping of three-dimensional structures using dynamic holograms,�?? Opt. Express 11, 3562�??3567 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3562.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3562</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper, and Z. J. Laczik, �??3D manipulation of particles into crystal structures using holographic optical tweezers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 220�??226 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-220.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-220</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, �??Interactive light-driven and parallel manipulation of inhomogeneous particles,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1550�??1556 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-26-1550.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-26-1550</a>
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, �??Diffractive optical tweezers in the Fresnel regime,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2243�??2250 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2243.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2243.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. T. O�??Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, �??Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, �??Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, �??Structure of optical vortices,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic image of a slightly defocussed optical “cogwheel” of mode index l=10 (reflection at a glass coverslip) in the vicinity of two 5 µm beads for size comparison.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffractive optical tweezers with divergent beam illumination: A high resolution (1920×1200 pixels) reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) is illuminated by a laser beam which strongly diverges behind a first lens. Only laser light diffracted into the desired first order is re-collimated after diffraction at a computer designed hologram displayed at the SLM. A further set of two lenses couples this beam into the optical pathway of an inverted microscope, where it is used to trap particles in different kinds of advanced optical traps. The inset shows example holograms displayed at the SLM for producing a doughnut mode (1) or a “cogwheel” mode (2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: Experimentally determined trap stiffness parameters for beads of various diameters, trapped in “cogwheel” modes of the same light intensity with different azimuthal mode indices. The horizontal lines are inserted as guides for the eye. Right: Maximal “cogwheel” diameters just able to trap a bead of fixed size as a function of the corresponding bead diameter. The insert demonstrates the application to living yeast cells.

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