Abstract

At present, optical coherence tomography systems have a limited imaging depth or axial scan range, making diagnosis of large diameter arterial vessels and hollow organs difficult. Adaptive ranging is a feedback technique where image data is utilized to adjust the coherence gate offset and range. In this paper, we demonstrate an adaptive optical coherence tomography system with a 7.0 mm range. By matching the imaging depth to the approximately 1.5 mm penetration depth in tissue, a 3 dB sensitivity improvement over conventional imaging systems with a 3.0 mm imaging depth was realized.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  3. A.M. Coppe and G. Ripandelli, “Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of vitreoretinal disorders of the macula in highly myopic eyes,”Semin. Ophthalmol. 2, 85–88(2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. A. Swanson, et al., “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power efficient nonreciprocical interferometer and linear scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett 24, 531–533 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,”Opt. Express 11, 782–93 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).
  24. B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,”Opt. Express 11, 782–93 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.M. Coppe and G. Ripandelli, “Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of vitreoretinal disorders of the macula in highly myopic eyes,”Semin. Ophthalmol. 2, 85–88(2003).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power efficient nonreciprocical interferometer and linear scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett 24, 531–533 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinsky, and S. A. Bopart, et al., “Images in cardiovascular medicine: catheter based optical imaging of a human coronary artery,” Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, et al., “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agatston, A. S.

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bopart, S. A.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinsky, and S. A. Bopart, et al., “Images in cardiovascular medicine: catheter based optical imaging of a human coronary artery,” Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power efficient nonreciprocical interferometer and linear scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett 24, 531–533 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

Brezinski, M. E.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Brezinsky, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinsky, and S. A. Bopart, et al., “Images in cardiovascular medicine: catheter based optical imaging of a human coronary artery,” Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,”Opt. Express 11, 782–93 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

Coppe, A.M.

A.M. Coppe and G. Ripandelli, “Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of vitreoretinal disorders of the macula in highly myopic eyes,”Semin. Ophthalmol. 2, 85–88(2003).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,”Opt. Express 11, 782–93 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, L.D.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, A.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Gordon, L.M.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra, O. R.

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Himmer, A.P.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C.K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G. A.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janowitz, W. R.

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy, ed.(Wiley-VCH, March 2001).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Larsen, M.

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

Larsen, N.

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lauwers, G. Y.

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

Lee, S.L.

J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lexer, F.

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Libus, J. J.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lund-Andersen, H.

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mantelle, L. L.

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molebny, S.

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Nishioka, N. S.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

Park, B. H.

Park, B.H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Partanen, J.

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy, ed.(Wiley-VCH, March 2001).
[Crossref]

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,”Opt. Express 11, 782–93 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poneros, J. M.

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Ripandelli, G.

A.M. Coppe and G. Ripandelli, “Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of vitreoretinal disorders of the macula in highly myopic eyes,”Semin. Ophthalmol. 2, 85–88(2003).
[Crossref]

Rollins, A. M.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sander, B.

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Schlendorf, K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.M.

J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sticker, M.

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strom, C.

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, et al., “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power efficient nonreciprocical interferometer and linear scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett 24, 531–533 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinsky, and S. A. Bopart, et al., “Images in cardiovascular medicine: catheter based optical imaging of a human coronary artery,” Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viamonte, M.

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Willis, J.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, R. C.

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.D. V.

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

Yung, K.M.

J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Am. Heart J. (1)

O. R. Guerra, W. R. Janowitz, A. S. Agatston, L. L. Mantelle, and M. Viamonte “Coronary artery diameter and coronary risk factors: a study with ultrafast computed tomography,” Am. Heart J. 126, 600–606 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (3)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinsky, and S. A. Bopart, et al., “Images in cardiovascular medicine: catheter based optical imaging of a human coronary artery,” Circulation 94, 3013 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 464–474 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (1)

M. V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, “High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474–479 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak“Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. Strom, B. Sander, N. Larsen, M. Larsen, and H. Lund-Andersen, “Diabetic macular edema assessed with optical coherence tomography and stereo fundus photography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 241–245 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B.H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Lexer, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution”, J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553(1999).

Journal of the American College of Cardiology (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, 604–609 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

C. Pitris, A. Goodman, S. A. Bopart, J. J. Libus, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence tomography,” Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 135–139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Qi, A.P. Himmer, L.M. Gordon, X.D. V. Yang, L.D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in a high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a micromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232, 123–128(2004).
[Crossref]

J.M. Schmitt, S.L. Lee, and K.M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced power in thick tissue”, Opt. Commun. 142, 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett (1)

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, “Power efficient nonreciprocical interferometer and linear scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett 24, 531–533 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical Coherence tomography-principles and applications”, Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semin. Ophthalmol. (1)

A.M. Coppe and G. Ripandelli, “Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of vitreoretinal disorders of the macula in highly myopic eyes,”Semin. Ophthalmol. 2, 85–88(2003).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. M. Poneros, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, G. Y. Lauwers, and N. S. Nishioka, “Diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using optical coherence tomography,” In: Digestive Disease Week, San Francisco, CA. American Gastroenterological Association, AB113(2001).

J. Kauppinen and J. Partanen, Fourier Transforms in Spectroscopy, ed.(Wiley-VCH, March 2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

OCT images of coronary arteries obtained in vivo; A-Artery with the catheter resting against the vessel wall; B-Large artery with a significant portion of the image outside of the coherence range. Tick marks, 500 µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the AR implementation in a standard OCT system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flow chart depicting the adaptive ranging algorithm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RSOD Galvanometer driving waveforms. a)- Non AR regime; b) Offset signal; c) ARregime - summation of the offset with the triangle waveform.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OCT axial reflectivity profile: σ1 is the centroid of the axial reflectivity profile, σ2 is the second moment, and ε is the location of the sample surface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of the MGH AR TD-OCT System. SOA -Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, ∑-summator, PBS-Polarization Beam splitter; BS-beam splitter, BPF-Band Pass Filter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

AR OCT images of a dorsal finger, obtained in vivo. The finger was slowly moved along the z scanning direction over a distance of approximately 5 mm. A. OCT image with the finger in the initial position; B. OCT image with the finger in the final position.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Images of a carotid plaque with a 6.0 mm maximum luminal diameter. A. Traditional OCT image demonstrates visualization of only a small portion of the arterial cross-section. B. Adaptive ranging enables imaging of the entire arterial cross-section with high signal strength. Tick marks, 1 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Retinal OCT images of a volunteer. A. OCT image obtained from the right eye of a volunteer without adaptive ranging; B. OCT image with adaptive ranging, obtained from the same location (right eye of the same volunteer). Images are composed of 512 A-lines of 1024 pixels and cover a depth of 1 mm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

A. Experimental setup for measurement of the AR performances; B. OCT image without AR; C. OCT image with the AR turned “on”. Gray scale bars in B and C represent OCT signal intensity.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Peak-to-peak OCT image surface displacement rate with AR on versus the surface velocity with AR off.

Equations (2)

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SNR = 10 log ( η P s 2 h ν N E B ) ,
NEB = Δ λ · f d λ 0 ,

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