Abstract

We present a fully monolithically integrated long vertical cavity surface emitting laser using an InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs gain medium directly bonded to a glass substrate with a concave micromirror. The lasing wavelength is 980nm with a threshold of 20mA for a 52µm mesa, differential quantum efficiency of 58%, and maximum output power of 39mW.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).
  3. E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  5. Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. L.A. Coldren and S.W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley Interscience, 1995), Chap. 2.

2003 (2)

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

2000 (1)

E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
[Crossref]

Allerman, A.A.

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

Avrutin, E.A.

E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cantos, B.D.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carey, G.P.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.A.

L.A. Coldren and S.W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley Interscience, 1995), Chap. 2.

Corzine, S.W.

L.A. Coldren and S.W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley Interscience, 1995), Chap. 2.

Delfyett, P.J.

P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
[Crossref]

Eisner, M.

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Esherick, P.

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

Foote, R.S.

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geib, K.M.

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

Hartman, D.H.

P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
[Crossref]

Haselbeck, S.

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heald, D.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H.P.

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hitchens, W.R.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, S.C.

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lewis, A.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liebman, M.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marsh, J.H.

E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

McInerney, J.G.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nussbaum, Ph.

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Peake, G.M.

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

Portnoi, E.L.

E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, J.M.

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schneibel, J.H.

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Serkland, D.K.

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

Shchegrov, A.V.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Strzelecka, E.M.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Völkel, R.

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.Y.

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Watson, J.P.

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zuber Ahmad, S.

P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A.V. Shchegrov, E.M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J.P. Watson, M. Liebman, G.P. Carey, B.D. Cantos, W.R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett. 39, 523–525 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

E.A. Avrutin, J.H. Marsh, and E.L. Portnoi, “Monolithic and multi-GigaHertz mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Construction, experiments, models and applications,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 147, 251–278 (2000).
[Crossref]

in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE (1)

D.K. Serkland, P. Esherick, K.M. Geib, G.M. Peake, and A.A. Allerman, “Optimization of external cavity VCSELs,” in Photonics West, H.Q. Hou, Proc. SPIE 4994, 30 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P.J. Delfyett, D.H. Hartman, and S. Zuber Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1646–1649 (1991)
[Crossref]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Ph. Nussbaum, R. Völkel, H.P. Herzig, M. Eisner, and S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of Microlens arrays for sensors and Microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuator B-Chem. (1)

H.Y. Wang, R.S. Foote, S.C. Jacobson, J.H. Schneibel, and J.M. Ramsey, “Low temperature bonding for microfabrication of chemical analysis devices,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 45, 199–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L.A. Coldren and S.W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley Interscience, 1995), Chap. 2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a monolithically integrated vertical long cavity surface emitting laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Output power and voltage drop vs. input current for a device with a 52µm mesa and a 600µm ROC micromirror. (b) Lasing spectrum of the same device for three input currents.

Equations (2)

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2 ω flat = 2 λ n π L R L 2
2 ω concave = 2 λ n π L 2 R 2 L R L 2

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