Abstract

Sol-gel hybrid materials containing a large quantity of photoactive molecules exhibited large changes in both refractive index and volume by UV exposure. The materials were used for the fabrication of diffraction gratings using the two-beam interference method. With this technique, we could simply fabricate the diffraction gratings and easily control the grating periods. The diffraction effects and efficiencies of gratings rely heavily on the UV doses and the fabricated diffraction gratings showed a good diffraction performance.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

O. H. Park, S. J. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Photochemical Reactions in Fluorinated Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials Doped with a Photolocking Agent for Direct Micropatterning,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 1749–1753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (3)

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1977 (1)

A Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

O. H. Park, S. J. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Photochemical Reactions in Fluorinated Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials Doped with a Photolocking Agent for Direct Micropatterning,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 1749–1753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kang, J. U. Park, B. S. Bae, J. Nishii, and K. Kintaka, “Single-Step Photo Patterning of Diffraction Gratings in Highly Photosensitive Hybrid Gel Films,” Opt. Express 11, 1144–1148 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1144
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Descour, M. R.

Fallahi, M.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Honkanen, S.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hormi, O. E.

Huang, T.

Ichimura, K.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

Jiang, H. J.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. I.

O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. J.

Kärkkäinen, A. H. O.

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

O. H. Park, S. J. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Photochemical Reactions in Fluorinated Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials Doped with a Photolocking Agent for Direct Micropatterning,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 1749–1753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Koudriachov, K.V.

Krongauz, V. A.

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

A Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D. R.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nishii, J.

Park, J. U.

Park, O. H

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. H.

O. H. Park, S. J. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Photochemical Reactions in Fluorinated Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials Doped with a Photolocking Agent for Direct Micropatterning,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 1749–1753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Penner, R. S.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

Rantala, J. T.

A. H. O. Kärkkäinen, J. M. Tamkin, J. D. Rogers, D. R. Neal, O. E. Hormi, G. E. Jabbour, J. T. Rantala, and M. R. Descour, “Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3988 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. D.

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamkin, J. M.

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ubukata, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vähäkangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K. H.

Weiss, V.

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A

A Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X. -.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zettsu, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, “Soft Crosslinkable Azo Polymer for Rapid Surface Relief Formation and Persistent Fixation,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1693–1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Park, S. J. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Photochemical Reactions in Fluorinated Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials Doped with a Photolocking Agent for Direct Micropatterning,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 1749–1753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (2)

O. H. Park, J. I. Jung, and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced Condensation of Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Films Doped with Benzildimethylketal,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143–2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, “Direct laser writing of selfdeveloped waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,” J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184–3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel materials for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index changes (a) and thickness changes (b) in UV exposed and baked SGH film depending on UV doses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of two-beam interference system (a) and the schematic illustration of the interference beam illuminated by the two-beam system (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical micrographs of diffraction gratings with periods of 5 µm (a), 3 µm (b), and 1 µm (c) fabricated with the two-beam interference system (photo-fabrication: before baking, optical micrographs investigation: after baking).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AFM images of diffraction gratings with periods of 600 nm (a) and 500 nm (b) fabricated with the two-beam interference system (photo-fabrication: before baking, AFM investigation: after baking).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CCD images of diffraction effects of the gratings with the period of 5 µm depending on exposure time (Diffraction effects in-situ measurement: before baking).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiencies of gratings with the period of 0.7 µm depending on exposure time (Diffraction efficiencies measurement: after baking).

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