Abstract

A novel design of polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has been proposed. The three-core PCF consists of two given identical cores with two-fold symmetry separated by a core with high birefringence. The polarization splitter is based on the phenomenon of resonant tunneling. Numerical simulations with a full vectorial beam propagation method demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a 1.9-mm-long splitter with the extinction ratio better than -20 dB and a bandwidth of 37 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Shi, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, D.M. Pustai, and D.W. Prather, “Dispersion-based beam splitter in photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, 617–619 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 11, 3188–3195 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3188.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Zhang and C. Yang, “Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 1015–1020 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-9-1015.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 405–413 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F.L. Teixeira and W.C. Chew, “General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223–225 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (5)

P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 11, 3188–3195 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3188.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang and C. Yang, “Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 1015–1020 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-9-1015.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F.L. Teixeira and W.C. Chew, “General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223–225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Asakawa, S.

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.A.

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P.I.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chew, W.C.

F.L. Teixeira and W.C. Chew, “General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223–225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W.-C.

K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J.P.

J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L.H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A.K.

K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A.H.

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.A.

J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, T.

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J.D.C.

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.C.

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Lee, W.-Y.

K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-C.

K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W.N.

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.J.

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Okamato, K.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Prather, D.W.

Pustai, D.M.

Rue, R.M.D.L.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.St.J.

P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B.J. Mangan, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sato, Y.

Seshadri, S.D.

K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, F.L.

F.L. Teixeira and W.C. Chew, “General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223–225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.J.

Whitaker, N.

J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yokohama, I.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (2)

I. Yokohama, K. Okamato, and J. Noda, “Fiber-optic polarising beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler,” Electron. Lett. 21, 415–416 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and A.H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1358–1359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J.P. Donnelly, H.A. Haus, and N. Whitaker, “Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401–406 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. (1)

F.L. Teixeira and W.C. Chew, “General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223–225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, R.M.D.L. Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact twodimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

K.-C. Lin, W.-C. Chuang, and W.-Y. Lee, “Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2547–2553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “ARROW-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1165–1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, S.D. Seshadri, and A.K. Ghatak, “Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 315–317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 405–413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W.N. MacPherson, J.D.C. Jones, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry,” Opt. Commun. 233, 375–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The upper panel shows the schematic cross-section of the proposed polarization splitter in three-core PCF. The lower panels show the close up around the cores A and B.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The variation of (a) the effective refractive indices of the supermodes of the three-core PCF and (b) the value of 2neff ,3-neff ,1-neff ,2 for the x-polarization state as a function of d 2/Λ, where the background silica index is assumed to be 1.45 and the operating wavelength λ=1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The upper and lower panels show the normalized power variation along the propagation distance in the cores A and C, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The x- and y-polarized mode field distributions at (a) z=0 mm, (b) z=0.8 mm, (c) z=0.97 mm, (d) z=1.14 mm, and (e) z=1.93 mm. The left and right panels show the x-polarized and y-polarized modes, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The wavelength dependence of the extinction ratios at a PCF length of 1.93 mm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n eff , 1 n eff , 3 = n eff , 3 n eff , 2
2 n eff , 3 n eff , 1 n eff , 2 = 0 ,
( n eff , 1 n eff , 3 ) x pol ( n eff , 3 n eff , 2 ) x pol
( n eff , 1 n eff , 3 ) y pol ( n eff , 3 n eff , 2 ) y pol .
L = λ { 2 ( n eff , 1 n eff , 3 ) x pol } ,
ERA = 10 log 10 output power of x polarization in core A output power of y polarization in core A
ERC = 10 log 10 output power of y polarization in core C output power of x polarization in core C .

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