Abstract

We present a multi trap optical tweezes system that enables to generate two-dimensional dynamical configurations of focal spot where the trapping force of each element of the pattern can be individually changed. Force gradients in the pN range can be generated on a micrometer scale.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. David G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).
  6. V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules,” Cell 77, 773 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. AJ. Bechhoefer and S. Wilson “Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70393–400 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Sasaki, M. Kashioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara “Pattern formation and flow control of fine particles by laser-scanning micromanipulation,” Opt. Lett. 161463–1465 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Dufresne and D. G. Grieret “Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 691974–1977 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Melville, G. F. Milne, G. C. Spalding, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and D. McGloin “Optical trapping of three dimansional structures using dynamic holograms,” Opt. Express 113562 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (6)

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AJ. Bechhoefer and S. Wilson “Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70393–400 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

E. Dufresne and D. G. Grieret “Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 691974–1977 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules,” Cell 77, 773 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

Alderson, N. B.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altissimo, M.

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. T.-

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balland, M.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechhoefer, AJ.

AJ. Bechhoefer and S. Wilson “Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70393–400 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules,” Cell 77, 773 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G.

K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Businaro, L.

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Choquet, D.

D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Cojoc, D.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Curtis, Jennifer E.

Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dearing, M. T.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

Del Pozo, M. A.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Di Fabrizio, E.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Dufresne and D. G. Grieret “Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 691974–1977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emiliani, V.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

Enger, J.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ericsson, M.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

Felsenfeld, D.

D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, E.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

Finer, J. T.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fodil, R.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galbraith, C. G.

C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallet, F.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grier, David G.

David G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grieret, D. G.

E. Dufresne and D. G. Grieret “Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 691974–1977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gross, S. P.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hagberg, P.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hahn, K. M.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanstorp, D.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hassanain, M.

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Henon, S.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isabey, D.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jules, R. S. St.

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Kashioka, M.

Kiosses, W. B.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitamura, N.

Koss, Brian A.

Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krol, J. J.

K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landick, R.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurent, V. M.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichtenberger, J.

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Malureanu, R.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

Masuhara, H.

McGloin, D.

Meller, N.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melville, H.

Milne, G. F.

Misawa, H.

Nystrom, T.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

Planus, E.

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proietti, R. Z.

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

Romanato, F.

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

Schwartz, M. A.

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheets, S. A.

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sheetz, M. P.

C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherry, D. M.

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Sibbett, W.

Simmons, R. M.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spalding, G. C.

H. Melville, G. F. Milne, G. C. Spalding, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and D. McGloin “Optical trapping of three dimansional structures using dynamic holograms,” Opt. Express 113562 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

Spudich, J. A.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules,” Cell 77, 773 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaccari, L.

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Visscher, K.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, S.

AJ. Bechhoefer and S. Wilson “Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70393–400 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K. M.

C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yin, H.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

AJ. Bechhoefer and S. Wilson “Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70393–400 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block “Streching DNA with Optical Tweezers,” Biophys. J. 721335–1346 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (2)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules,” Cell 77, 773 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Choquet, D. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz “Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages,” Cell 88, 39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cytometry (1)

K. Visscher, G. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14105–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21066–1076 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Bacteriology (1)

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nystrom “Sorting out bacteria viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriology,  182, 5551 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

V. M. Laurent, S. Henon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, and F. Gallet “Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation: comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers,” J. Biomech. Eng. 124, 408–421 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

C. G. Galbraith, K. M. Yamada, and M. P. Sheetz “The relationship between force and focal complex development,” J. Cell Biol. 159695 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Cojoc, V. Emiliani, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, S. Cabrini, R. Z. Proietti, and E. Di Fabrizio “Multiple optical trapping by means of diffractive optical elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  43 6B 3910–3915 (2004).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. Cojoc, E. di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S. Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, and M. Altissimo “Design and Fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezers arrays by means of e-beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62963 (2002).
[Crossref]

Molecular Vision (1)

E. T.- Anderson, R. S. St. Jules, D. M. Sherry, J. Lichtenberger, and M. Hassanain “Micromanipulation of retinal Neurons by Optical tweezers,”, Molecular Vision 4, 12 (1998).

Nature (3)

David G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature cell Biol. (1)

M. A. Del Pozo, W. B. Kiosses, N. B. Alderson, N. Meller, K. M. Hahn, and M. A. Schwartz “Intergin regulate GTP-Rac localized effector interaction through dissociation of Rho-GDI,” Nature cell Biol. 4, 232 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Jennifer E. Curtis, Brian A. Koss, and David G. Grier “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207169 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

E. Dufresne and D. G. Grieret “Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 691974–1977 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 721810–1816 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the multi trap optical tweezers set up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polystyrene latex beads, 2 µm in diameter, trapped by a circle of laser spot(a); deformed in an ellipse (b); deformed by leaving one part of the circle fixed (c); same beads trapped in a squared array (d); deformed along the x direction (e); traps can be moved independently (f).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity distribution of the spots reflected on the coverslip and imaged onto a CCD camera, for a 4×4 array and a circular distribution.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Intensity profile along the arrow of Fig. 3, the row number is indicated in the figure. (b) Force calibration corresponding to the different rows of the array.

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